Section 2: Scientific Approaches and Ethics

Last changed: 30 January 2014


To provide an understanding of different approaches in different fields of scholarship, and skills of solving research problems within national and international contexts.

To equip participants with the ability to conduct an ethical assessment of research



Patterns of reasoning and research strategies

  • Principles of reasoning
  • Research Strategies

Aspects of knowledge

  • What knowledge is
  • Purpose of knowledge

Theoretical and conceptual frameworks

  • Causation and correlation
  • Explanation and Prediction
  • Generating and Testing theory

Science and ethics

  • Consequences of Science
  • Research Ethics
  • Publication and Authorship

Scientific innovation and critical discourse

  • Discovery
  • Invention
  • Renovation
  • Innovation
  • Creation


Intended learning outcomes

  • Suggest a suitable scientific approach in relation to the research topic at stake.
  • Recognize the different knowledge interests in research activities
  • Identify causative/correlative and explanatory/predictive relationships between research problems and theories
  • Discuss ethical concerns in research on humans and animals and societal consequences of science.
  • Justify decisions on authorship credit with reference to acknowledged international codes
  • Critically reflect on their own research activities in terms of outcomes