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Forest Regeneration

The purpose of this master course is to give the students insight in the complexity in forest regenerations of the modern forestry in northern Europe. Seedling types, planting techniques and site preparation methods will be discussed and evaluated. We will look deeper into plant ecophysiology and pests like for example the large pine weevil. The course will also provide knowledge in design of regeneration experiments and the techniques in measurements of seedling vitality and growth.

Course starts June 7 with webinars and introduction of the course. Most of the course is made of self-studies, distance learning and individual project work. The course ends with field excursions in Småland and Skåne. (August 9-13). This part of the course is mandatory and can´t be replaced with anything else. Due to corona the final plan for the fieldweek is not ready yet. We will try to arrange the week in some way, small groups, mixed with lectures etc. For detailed information contact the course leader Kristina Wallertz

The course evaluation is now closed

SG0255-50006 - Course evaluation report

Once the evaluation is closed, the course coordinator and student representative have 1 month to draft their comments. The comments will be published in the evaluation report.

Additional course evaluations for SG0255

Academic year 2019/2020

Forest Regeneration (SG0255-50085) 2020-06-08 - 2020-08-16

Academic year 2018/2019

Forest Regeneration (SG0255-50039) 2019-06-10 - 2019-08-18

SG0255 Forest Regeneration, 7.5 Credits

Skoglig föryngring

Syllabus approved



Forest science Forest Management

Education cycle

Master’s level

Advanced study in the main field

Second cycle, only first-cycle courses as entry requirements(A1N)

Grading scale

5:Pass with Distinction, 4:Pass with Credit, 3:Pass, U:Fail The requirements for attaining different grades are described in the course assessment criteria which are contained in a supplement to the course syllabus. Current information on assessment criteria shall be made available at the start of the course.



Prior knowledge

Knowledge at basic level equivalent to 120 credits, of which at least
- 60 credits in Agricultural Science or
- 60 credits in Biology or
- 60 credits in Environmental Sciences or
- 60 credits in Forest Management or
- 60 credits in Forest Science or
- 60 credits in Horticultural Science or
- 60 credits in Landscape Architecture
and English 6 from Swedish upper secondary school or equivalent qualifications.


The purpose of the course is to present a comprehensive overview of the complete chain of forest regeneration, and to give the students insight in the complexity of regeneration methods in north-European forestry.

After the course the student should be able to
- Describe and analyse regeneration methods used in contemporary forests in northern Europe.
- Analyse different regeneration methods, from a perspective of forestry as part of a sustainable development.
- Measure and evaluate the establishment of planted tree seedlings
- Design a forest regeneration experiment and analyse and evaluate the results


During the course, the complete chain of forest regeneration is studied, from seed to established trees. New findings and insights in seedling types, planting techniques, and soil scarification methods will be discussed, and evaluated in relation to plant ecophysiology and site factors. The course also provides knowledge in design of regeneration experiments and in the techniques to measure seedling vitality and growth.

The course will be held as a distance course on 50 % study time, scheduled during the summer semester. At course start, students will be introduced to the course portal used for the distance studies. However, at the end of the course, there is a one-week mandatory field excursion. The course includes two individual assignments, one based on literature studies that will be submitted prior to the field week and one field work project that should be submitted after the field week. The field work project is launched at course start, where the student will measure growth and vitality of newly planted seedlings over the course period.

Formats and requirements for examination

For passing the course the student must submit required written assignment in literature studies, conduct a field work project, participate in group activities through canvas and attend to the mandatory field week.
  • If the student fails a test, the examiner may give the student a supplementary assignment, provided this is possible and there is reason to do so.
  • If the student has been granted special educational support because of a disability, the examiner has the right to offer the student an adapted test, or provide an alternative assessment.
  • If changes are made to this course syllabus, or if the course is closed, SLU shall decide on transitional rules for examination of students admitted under this syllabus but who have not yet passed the course.
  • For the examination of a degree project (independent project), the examiner may also allow the student to add supplemental information after the deadline. For more information on this, please refer to the regulations for education at Bachelor's and Master's level.

Other information

  • The right to take part in teaching and/or supervision only applies to the course date to which the student has been admitted and registered on.
  • If there are special reasons, the student may take part in course components that require compulsory attendance at a later date. For more information on this, please refer to the regulations for education at Bachelor's and Master's level.

Additional information

The mandatory excursion will be located around SLUs field station at Asa, Småland, and accomodation is booked at a youth hostel. Students are responsible for their travel to and from Asa. Certain costs for accomodation during the excursion may arise for students.

Responsible department

Department of Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre

Further information

Determined by: Programnämnden för utbildning inom skog (PN - S)
There are no Grading criteria posted for this course
2) Ecophysiology of northern spruce species: The performance of planted seedlings.
Author: Grossnickle S.C.
ISBN: 0-660-17959-8
3) Natural regeneration of broadleaved tree species in Southern Sweden - effects of silvicultural treatments and seed dispersal from surrounding stands.
Author: Karlsson, M. (2001)
4) Natural regeneration of broadleaved tree species in Southern Sweden - effects of silvicultural treatments and seed dispersal from surrounding stands.
Author: Karlsson, M. (2001)
5) The effects of scarification and shelterwood treatments on naturally regenerated seedlings in southern Sweden."
Author: Karlsson, M. and U. Nilsson
6) Natural regeneration in clear-cuts: Effects of scarification, slash removal and clear-cut age."
Author: Karlsson, M., U. Nilsson and G. Orlander
7) Being John Harper: Using evolutionary ideas to improve understanding of global patterns in plant traits.
Author: Moles, A. T
8) Best practice for tree breeding in Europe.
Author: Mullin TJ, Lee S, editors
9) Quantitative estimates of tree species selectivity by moose (Alces alces) in a forest landscape
Author: Månsson J., Kalén C., Kjellander P., Andrén H. & Smith H.
10) Reforestation with planting in northern Europe.
Author: Nilsson U., Luoranen J., Kolström T., Örlander G. and Puttonen P.
11) Site Preparation – a Swedish overview Overview.
Author: Örlander G., Gemmel P. and Hunt J.
12) Effect of reforestation methods on pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) damage and seedling survival.
Author: Örlander G and Nilsson U.
14) Scarification and seedfall affects natural regeneration of Scots pine under two shelterwood densities and a clear-cut in southern Sweden."
Author: Beland, M., et al.
15) Manipulating seed availability, plant competition and litter accumulation by soil preparation and canopy opening to ensure regeneration success in temperate low-mountain forest stands.
Author: Dassot, M. and C. Collet
16) General biology and life cycles of bark weevils.
Author: Day KR, Nordlander G, Kenis M, Halldorson G
ISBN: 1-4020-2241-7
17) Germination and seedling establishment of Norway spruce (Picea abies) after clear-cutting is affected by timing of soil scarification."
Author: Floistad, I. S., G. Hylen, K. H. Hanssen and A. Granhus
19) Mechanical site preparation for forest restoration
Author: Löf M., Dey D.C., Navarro R M. ,Jacobs D.F.
20) To Feed or not to Feed? Evidence of the Intended and Unintended Effects of Feeding Wild Ungulates.
Author: Milner et al.
21) What do seedlings die from and what are the implications for evolution of seed size?
Author: Moles, A. T. and M. Westoby
22) Regeneration silviculture of birch - a review."
Author: Perala, D. A. and A. A. Alm
23) "Reproductive ecology of birch - a review.
Author: Perala, D. A. and A. A. Alm
24) Effects of roe deer browsing and site preparation on performance of planted broadleaved and conifer seedlinhs when using temporary fences.
Author: Bergqvist, J. Löf, M. Örlander G.
25) Interactions between ungulates forests and supplementary feeding-the role of nutritional balancing in determing outcomes.
Author: Feltin aM, Felton A. Cromsigt J. Edenius L. Malmsten J. Wam H K.
26) Interactions between Near-ground temperature and radiation, silvicultural treatments and frost damage to Norway spruce seedlings
Author: Langvall O
27) Effects of timing, duration and intensity of simulated browsing on Scots pine growth and stem quality.
Author: Wallgren M. Bergqvist J. Bergström R. Eriksson S.
28) Copmarison of different site preparation techniques: quality of planting spots, seedling growth and pine weevil.
Author: Wallertz K. Björklund N. Hjelm K. Petersson M. Sundblad. L-G.
29) Influence of mechanical site preparation on regeneration success of planted conifers in clearcuts in Fennoscandia – a review.
Author: Sikström U. Hjelm, K. Holt Hanssen K. Saksa T. Wallertz K.

Course facts

The course is offered as an independent course: Yes The course is offered as a programme course: Euroforester - Master´s Programme Forest Science - Master´s Programme Forest Management - Bachelor´s Programme Multi-purpose forest management Tuition fee: Tuition fee only for non-EU/EEA/Switzerland citizens: 19027 SEK Cycle: Master’s level
Subject: Forest science Forest Management
Course code: SG0255 Application code: SLU-50006 Distance course: Yes Language: English Responsible department: Department of Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre Pace: 50%