Image references according to the Harvard system

Last changed: 25 September 2019
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How do you refer to someone else's image or figure? Here are examples of how you make image references according to the Harvard system.

Remember that images and photos that you don't have created yourself and are not covered by Creative Commons-license or otherwise are free to use, are subject to copyright and require the copyright holder's permission for publication.

The SLU University Library provides suggestions on how to refer to images and figures in your work. Figures include diagrams, photographs, sketches, etc. We have based this material on the "Guide till Harvardsystemet" (version 9.5.1) from the University of Borås (CC-BY-NC-SA.3.0).

Images or figures usually have their references beneath them with the name of the author, title of the work, and year. If you number your images/figures, you can easily refer to them in your text.
Sometimes there can be a large number of images/figures in your work with references to other copyright holders than yourself. In these cases you can, instead of having their references in your reference list, create an image/figure list as an attachment to the reference list. The image/figure list is usually placed after the table of content, but can also be placed in relation to the reference list.

Image/figure from the web or database

If a specific creator is mentioned for the image/figure, the reference is posted on that name, as the author. For photos, the photographer is treated as the author.
The reference below the image should contain:

  • Title
  • Author
  • Year

Example:

Figure 1: Gud Fader på Himmelsbågen (Ellgaard 2008)


If no specific creator is mentioned, the reference is set to the organization that owns the image/figure.

Example:

Figure 2: Suit: on liberty (Metropolitan Museum of Art u.å.)

 

If the image/figure has a Creative Commons license the reference should contain:

  • Title
  • Author
  • Creative Commons license

Also link to the pages where the information is available.

Example:

Figure 1. Flowers av Patrick Nouhailler (CC BY-SA 2.0)


If you add images/figures to your reference list, they will contain this information:

  • Author
  • Year of publication (when the image was published on the web)
  • Title
  • If it's a photo also include the information [photography]
  • URL
  • [Date] when the image was downloaded or the name of the database Available: followed by the name of the database

Examples:

Ellgaard, H. (2008). Gud Fader på Himmelsbågen [photography]. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gud_Fader_3a.jpg [2013-03-25]

Metropolitan Museum of Art (u.å.) Suit: on liberty [photography].
Available: Berg Fashion Library.

Image/figure from a book, article or report

If the creator of the image/figure is also the author of the text, the reference below the image should contain:

  • Title
  • Source
  • Year
  • Page number

Example:

Figure 1: E-handelns omsättning 2003–2011 (miljarder kronor) (HUI 2012, s. 5)

If you choose to have it in the reference list, you refer to the source as usual. In this example the figure is from a report:

Handelns utredningsinstitut (HUI) (2012). e-barometern: den svenska detaljhandelns utveckling inom e-handeln, Q 3. Stockholm: HUI. http://www.hui.se/statistik-rapporter/index-och-barometrar/ebarometern [2017-06-12].


If the creator of the image/figure is someone else than the author, the reference below the image should contain the name of the creator of the image/figure.

Example:

Figure 2: Skogstjärn (Södergren 2003, s.10)


If you choose to add images/figures to your reference list, they contain this information:

  • Creator of the image
  • Year of publication
  • Title of the image
  • If it's a photo also include the information [photography]
  • The letter I followed by the author of the source, title, publisher location and publisher.

In the example below the image is a photo. Södergren is the photographer and Rausing-Ros is the author of the book.

Example: 

Södergren, L. (2003). Skogstjärn [fotografi]. I Rausing-Ros, Å. Textilkonstnären Maja Sjöström: ett skånsk-romerskt konstnärsliv. Stockholm: Carlssons. 

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