Reference list according to the SLU Harvard system

Last changed: 09 September 2020

Harvard is the most common reference system at SLU. On this page you will find examples of how to write references according to the SLU Harvard style.

The SLU-Harvard recommendation was updated in September 2020. Please contact the library if you need to access the previous version.   

Harvard is a generic term for any reference style where the author and year of publication is written within parenthesis, such as (Andersson 2019), and a reference list is included at the end of the document. Therefore, there is no official guide to the Harvard style. Different disciplines, educational programs and departments have different instructions for referencing. The SLU Harvard style is most common at SLU but if you are unsure what reference style you should use, ask your teacher or supervisor. 

Reference list 

The reference list should include enough information so that anyone reading your text will be able to easily trace the sources you have used. In the Harvard style, the reference list is written in alphabetical order. Include all sources cited in the document. We recommend hanging indent, see example belowWhat type of information you should include in each reference depends on the type of source being cited. On this page there are instructions for different types of sources. You can also always use a reference management software and the SLU Harvard style sheet that follows this recommendation.   

Example reference list 

Referenslista-770x563.PNG

If you want to use a link in your reference, our recommendation is to primarily use a persistent link if it is available. If you use a regular link in your reference you need to include a date for when you visited the web page. 

Below are examples of how you can write references to different kinds of sources. If you cannot find the specific source type you are looking for you can consult this resource:  

Audio and video

Podcast, radio and TV program 

Include, if available: 

  • Program series  
  • Year 
  • Titel of program  
  • [Pod cast] / [Radio program] / [TV program] 
  • Person/persons responsible for the program 
  • Date the program was broadcast 
  • Link 
  • [Date] when you visited the website 

The reference is written as follows:  

Program series (Year). Titel of program. [Medium]. Who is responsible for the program, date. Link 

In-text citation: 

(Sommar 2008) 
(Vetenskapens värld 2010) 
(Creepypodden i P3 2019) 

In the reference list: 

Creepypodden i P3 (2019). Om ett hus vid en sjö i en skog. [Pod cast]. Sveriges Radio, P3 4 mars. https://sverigesradio.se/avsnitt/1246232 [2020-08-21]   

Sommar (2008). Dolph Lundgren. [Radio program]. Producer: Helena Groll. Sveriges Radio, P1 July 19. 

Vetenskapens värld (2010). Världshavens försurning. [TV program]. Sveriges Television, SVT 2 March 15. 

Video  

Include, if available:  

  • Author 
  • Year 
  • Video's title 
  • [Video] 
  • Link 
  • [Date] when you viewed the video 

The reference is written as follows: 

Author (Year). Title. [Video]. Link [Date]  

In-text citation:   

(Linneuniversitetet 2007)   

In the reference list: 

Linneuniversitetet (2007). Vad är en vetenskaplig artikel? [Video].  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HgpoHuPj3ww [2010-06-23]  

Books

If the book is part of a series of books you can choose to include information about series and serial number in the reference, you then put them in parenthesis right after the book title. This is however optional. 

If the book is published in several editions, then include edition in the reference. 

If you make a verbatim quote, or want to highlight something, you should include page number in the text reference, example: (Campbell 2018:59) 

Book (monograph) 

A book that is a monography deal with the certain topic (instead of a wide range of topics) and has the same author(s) for the whole book.  

Include, if available: 

  • Author(s) 
  • Year 
  • Title 
  • Edition (if more than one) 
  • Place of publication  
  • Publisher 
  • Persistent link 

The reference is written as follows: 

Last name(s), First name(s) initial. (Year). Title. Edition, Place of publication: Publisher. Persistent link 

In-text citation: 

(Campbell 2018) 
(Eklund 2017) 
(Hirons & Thomas 2017) 
(Opperman et al. 2017) 

In the reference list: 

Campbell, M.O. (2018). Geomatics and conservation biology. New York: Nova Science Publishers. 

Eklund, K. (2017). Vår ekonomi: en introduktion till samhällsekonomin14 uppl., Lund: Studentlitteratur 

Hirons, A.D & Thomas, P.A. (2017). Applied Tree Biology. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118296387 

Opperman, J.J., Moyle, P.B., Larsen, E.W., Florsheim, J.L. & Manfree, A.D. (2017). Floodplains: Processes and management for ecosystem services. Berkeley: University of California Press 

Chapter in a book 

If the book has chapters written by different authors, it is called an anthology. If you want to cite a chapter in this kind of book, include the following, if available: 

  • Chapter's author(s) 
  • Year 
  • Chapter title followed by "In:" 
  • Book's editors 
  • Book title  
  • Edition (if the book has been published in several editions) 
  • Place of publication  
  • Publisher 
  • Page numbers 
  • Persistent link 

The reference is written as follows: 

Last name(s), First name(s) initial. (Year). Chapters Title. In: Editors(s) last name, Editor(s) first name initial. (ed.)/(edsBook title. Edition, Place of publication: Publisher. page number-page number. Persistent link 

In-text citation: 

(Schwarz 2018) 
(Ellingson et al. 2018) 

In the reference list: 

Schwarz, W. (2018). Semantic possibility. I: Ball, Derek & Rabern, Bran (eds) The Science of Meaning: Essays on the Metatheory of Natural Language Semantics. Oxford: Oxford Scholarship. 361-380. 10.1093/oso/9780198739548.001.0001 

Ellingson, E.K., Hokanson, S.C., Bradeen, J.M. (2018). Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière). I: Ian Warrington (eds) Horticultural Reviews, volume 46. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. 227-253. 

Book (anthology) 

If you want to cite a whole anthology with chapters written by different authors, (it is uncommon) you cite the editors: 

In-text citation: 

(Ball and Rabern 2018) 

In the reference list: 

Ball, D. & Rabern, B. (eds.) (2018). The Science of Meaning: Essays on the Metatheory of Natural Language Semantics. Oxford: Oxford Scholarship Online. 10.1093/oso/9780198739548.001.0001 

Conference proceedings

Conference lectures, articles and abstracts are usually published in a conference publication. It can be a book, a supplement or even a number in a journal, or published by the conference itself. 

Include, if available: 

  • Author 
  • Year 
  • Titel 
  • Editor(s) 
  • Titel of conference publication (if it is a specific conference publication) 
  • Name of conference, date and location 
  • Page/article number/abstract number 
  • Link 
  • [Date] if link is not persistent link 

Depending on the type of publication the reference can be written differently, see examples below.   

Proceeding in a conference publication that is a book 

Might be published by a publisher or by the conference. Cite as to a chapter in a book, but add name of conference, location and date. 

In-text citation: 

(Muller 1998) 

In the reference list: 

Muller, P. (1998). Space-Time as a Primitive for Space and Motion. In: Guarino, N. (ed.)  Formal Ontology in Information Systems, Proceedings of the First International Conference (FOIS’98) June 6-8, Trento, Italy. 63-76 

Proceeding in a conference publication that is a journal issue

Cited the same way as to other journal articles. Usually you don’t add information about the conference in these cases, but if you choose to add the conference name our recommendation is to do ii within square brackets after information about pages. 

In-text citation: 

(Piikki & Söderström 2019) 

In the reference list: 

Piikki, K. & Söderström, M. (2019). Digital soil mapping of arable land in Sweden - Validation of performance at multiple scales. Geoderma, 352:342-350 [7th Global Workshop on Digital Soil Mapping, June 27-July 01 2016, Aarhus, Denmark]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2017.10.049 

Conference proceeding on a web page 

In-text citation: 

(Söderström et al. 2016) 

In the reference list: 

Söderström, M., Stadig, H., Martinsson, J., Piiki, K. & Stenberg, M. (2016). CropSAT – A public satellite-based decision support system for variable-rate nitrogen fertilization in Scandinavia. The International Conference on Precision Agriculture July 31-August 4 2016, St Louis, Missouri USA. 1964 https://www.ispag.org/proceedings/?action=abstract&id=1964 [2019-03-14] 

Dataset

Data citation means to refer to a published set of research data in the same way as, for example, bibliographic references to journal articles, reports and other publications.  

Include, if available: 

  • Source (Primary researcher and/or institution) 
  • Year 
  • Title of dataset 
  • Data archive 
  • Version 
  • Persistent link 

The reference is written as follows: 

Last name, first name initial. Name of institution (Year). Title. Data archive. Version nr. Persistent link 

In-text citation: 

(Snäll et al. 2018) 
(Oakley et al. 2017) 

In the reference list: 

Snäll, T., Mair, L., Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet & Artdatabanken (2018). Species distribution modelling data for Phellinus ferrugineofuscus. Svensk Nationell Datatjänst. Version 1.0. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5879/ECDS/2017-03-23.1/1 

Manzoor, S., Bongcam-Rudloff, E., Schnurer, A. & Müller, B. (2015). Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans Re1 complete genome. GenBank. Version HF563609.2. Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/HF563609 [2019-03-17] 

Dissertations

Include, if available: 

  • Author 
  • Year 
  • Title  
  • Diss. (dissertation)/Lic. diss. (licentiate dissertation) 
  • University where dissertation is submitted (is only included if it is not the same as the publisher) 
  • Place of publication (add the university's location if no place of publication is specified) 
  • Publisher (add the university were the dissertation was submitted if no publisher is specified)  
  • Persistent link 

The reference is written as follows: 

Last name, First name initial. (Year). Title. Diss. University. Place of publication: Publisher. Persistent link. 

In-text citation: 

(Bröjer 2012) 
(Limberg 1998) 

In the reference list: 

Bröjer, C. (2012). Pathobiology of avian influenza in wild bird speciesDiss. Uppsala: Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-496 

Limberg, L. (1998). Att söka information för att lära: en studie av samspel mellan informationssökning och lärande. Diss. Göteborgs universitet. Borås: Valfrid. 

Encyclopedia and Wikipedia

Encyclopedia 

Shorter entries in encyclopedias often lack an author. If this is the case, add the entry word in your in-text citation and the name of the encyclopedia (in italics) as the author in the reference list Longer articles can be signed, i.e. have a clearly named author   cite these types of sources as a chapter in a book.    

Include, if available: 

  • Source (author or encyclopedia)  
  • Year 
  • Title
  • Page number (if applicable 
  • Place of publication  
  • Publisher 
  • Link  
  • [Date] when you visited the website 

Example of short entries: 

In-text citation: 

According to FASS Ivermektin is … (FASS Djurläkemedel n.d.) 

In the reference list: 

FASS Djurläkemedel.(n.d.)Ivermektinhttps://www.fass.se/LIF/substance?userType=1&substanceId=IDE4POFCUAWB7VERT1 [2019-04-02] 

Examples of signed articles: 

In-text citation: 

(Asakura & Kaplan 1994) 
(Kil & Shin 1999) 

In the reference list: 

Asakura T. & Kaplan D.L. (1994). Silk production and processing. I: Arntzen Charles J. & Ritter, Ellen M. (eds). Encyclopedia of Agricultural Science Volume 4. 1-11. London: Academic Press Inc. 

Kil, D.H. & Shin, F.B. (1999). Sonar target recognition. I: Webster John G. (eds). Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. John Wiley & Sons.https://doi.org/10.1002/047134608X.W5407 

Wikipedia 

Wikipedia is a good source to get an overview of a new subject, find inspiration, keywords and other sources. However, it is not usually recommended to cite a Wikipedia source when you write an essay at university. If you nonetheless use Wikipedia you should use the sites persistent links when you cite. Wikipedia calls it permanent link, and you find it in the left-hand sidebar under tools 

Include, if available: 

  • Source (author or encyclopedia)  
  • År 
  • Titel 
  • Beständig länk 

The reference is written as follows: 

Source (Year). Title. Persistent link  

In-text citation: 

(Wikipedia 2019) 

In the reference list:  

Wikipedia (2019). Urskoghttps://sv.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Urskog&oldid=46197232 

Illustrations (photos, figures, diagram, maps etc.)

Swedish legislation and government publications

Laws and regulations  

All laws and regulations are presented in the Swedish Code of Statutes (SFS). They are arranged chronologically according to their SFS number, which consists of the year and a serial number, e.g. 1944:219. There are other statue books of laws and regulations that apply to certain government authorities, for example the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency's code of statutes (NFS) or the Code of Regulations of the Swedish Board of Agriculture (SJVFS). 

Include, if available: 

  • SFS/statue books name and number 
  • Title 
  • Place of publication 
  • Publisher (responsible department) 

The reference is written as follows: 

Statue book’s name and number. Title. Place of publication: Publisher  

In-text citation: 

Use the SFS-number or similar when you cite laws or regulations. To cite a specific place in a law refer to the chapter and/or section instead of to a page 

In the reference list:  

SFS 2013:1059. Förordning om kontroll av ekologisk produktion. Stockholm: Näringsdepartementet 

SJVFS 2004:32. Utfärdande av pass för sällskapsdjur. Jönköping: Statens jordbruksverk 

EU-documents (regulations, directives etc.) 

Further guidelines to cite EU-documentation can be found in  the Interinstitutional Style Guide: https://publications.europa.eu/code/en/en-000500.htm 

Include, if available: 

  • Author (responsible institution)  
  • Year and number  
  • Title 
  • Unique document number  
  • Persistent link  

The reference is written as follows: 

Author Year and number Titel (Unique document number). Persistent link  

In-text citation: 

(Europaparlamentets och rådets förordning 2016/429)  

In the reference list: 

Europaparlamentets och rådets förordning (EU) 2016/429 av den 9 mars 2016 om överförbara djursjukdomar och om ändring och upphävande av vissa akter med avseende på djurhälsa (”djurhälsolag”) (EUT L 84, 31.3.2016, 1-208)http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg/2016/429/oj

Government publications  

Government publications refers to various documents and publications produced by the government, parliament, authorities, and municipalities. This can include minutes, motions, propositions, investigations, etc. 

Include, if available: 

  • Author/Source, e.g. institution publishing the document 
  • Publication year 
  • Title  
  • Series 
  • Edition (if more than one) 
  • Place of publication 
  • Publisher 

The reference is written as follows: 

Author (Year). TitleSeries name year:number)Place of publication: Publisher  

In-text citation: 

(Djurtransportutredningen 2003) 

(Arbetsmarknadsutskottet 2003) 

In the reference list: 

Djurtransportutredningen (2003). Kännande varelser eller okänsliga varorStockholm: Fritzes. (Statens offentliga utredningar 2003:06) 

Arbetsmarknadsutskottet (2003). Utgiftsområde 13 Arbetsmarknad. Stockholm: Sveriges Riksdag. (2002/2003:AU1) 

SOU - Swedish Government Official Reports 

The Government sometimes works with issues requiring a thorough examination. Once the investigation is complete it is published in the series called SOU (Statens Offentliga utredningar). It is a common type of government publication in Sweden. Each SOU has a unique identification number consisting of a year and a sequential number, e.g. SOU 2012:22 

Include, if available: 

  • Name of the investigation 
  • Year 
  • Title  
  • SOU year:number 
  • Place of publication 
  • Department 

The reference is written as follows: 

Name of the investigation (Year). Title. (SOU year:numberPlace of publication: Department 

In-text citation: 

(Rovdjursutredningen 2012) 

In the reference list:  

Rovdjursutredningen (2012). Mål för rovdjuren. (SOU 2012:22). Stockholm: Miljödepartementet 

Newspaper article and popular science article

Newspaper articles are often published in weekly and daily newspapers. Popular science articles are often published in journals with number of issues each year and are targeted towards a general audience with a special interest in the topic.  

Newspaper article 

Include, if available: 

  • Article author 
  • Year 
  • Title 
  • Newspaper's title  
  • Date 
  • Link 
  • [Date] when you visited the website 

The reference is written as follows: 

Article author (Year). Title. Newpaper’s title, date. Link [Date] 

In-text citation: 

(Levander 1999) 

In the reference list: 

Levander, M. (1999). Stress ger fler uppsägningar. Dagens Nyheter, July 21. 

Popular science article 

Include, if available: 

  • Article author 
  • Year   
  • Title  
  • Journal’s title    
  • Volume and number  
  • Page number  
  • Link 
  • [Date] when you visited the website 

The reference is written as follows: 

Article author (Year). Title. Journal’s title, Volume (Number), page number. Link [Date] 

In-text citation: 

(Pollnow 2018)  

In the reference list: 

Pollnow, M. (2018). Omgiven av idioti. Filter, (63).  https://magasinetfilter.se/granskning/omgiven-av-idioti/ [2019-04-04] 

Pamphlet, fact sheets, flyers and other small prints

Include, if available: 

  • Author (Author or institution publishing the document) 
  • Year 
  • Title 
  • [Pamphlet] / [Fact sheet] / [Flyer] 
  • Series - if applicable 
  • Place of publication  
  • Publisher 
  • Link, if you read it online 
  • [Date] when you read the pamphlet if you read it online 

The reference is written as follows: 

Author (Year). Title. [Pamphlet] Series. Place of publication: Publisher. Link [Date] 

In-text citation: 

(Naturvårdsverket 2015) 

In the reference list: 

Naturvårdsverket (2015). Så bildas en nationalpark. [Pamphlet]. Stockholm: Naturvårdsverket. http://www.naturvardsverket.se/Documents/publikationer6400/ 978-91-620-8721-0.pdf?pid=14322 [2015-07-08] 

Personal communication

In-person interviews, private letters, emails, telephone conversations, lectures etc. are examples of personal communication.  

The way you handle and cite these kinds of sources differ between different disciplines, talk to your supervisor about how to cite them in your work. 

If you want to include personal communication in the reference list, it is important that you make it clear that the source is not published. To do so, you can put the sources under a separate heading. Sometimes this kind of material is excluded from the reference list, since it is not possible for the readers to get access to the material. An alternative is to cite the source in a footnote. Regardless what you decide to do, it is important to ask the person for permission before you cite them. 

In-text citation: 

Svensson1 says that…  

In the footnote: 

1 Anders Svensson, teacher, SLU, lecture 2019-03-15 

Be aware that interviews and surveys that are a part of your empirical work is treated in another manner. Depending on the scientific discipline, this manner differs and it is therefore important that you ask your supervisor or teacher what is custom within your field. You can also find more information in books about scientific methods. 

 

Reports

Reports are often produced by universities, government agencieslocal govermentscompanies and organisations. The format often follows a scientific structure. Cite it as a book and add information about series and persistent link. 

Include, if available: 

  • Author(s) 
  • Year 
  • Title 
  • Series and report number 
  • Place pf publication  
  • Publisher 
  • Persistent link 

The reference is written as follows: 

Last name(s), First name(s) initial. (Year). Title. (Series Report number). Place of publication: Publisher. Persistent link. 

In-text citation: 

(Eriksson 2016) 
(Energimyndigheten 2018) 
(WWF 2015) 

In the reference list: 

Energimyndigheten (2018). Smart och förnybart energisystem på Gotland: Energimyndighetens förstudie om hur Gotland kan bli en pilot i omställningen till ett hållbart energisystem i Sverige (ER 2018:05). Eskilstuna: Energimyndigheten. 

Eriksson, C. (2016). Att lära ut akademiskt skrivande: en handledning med exempel på övningar (Urban and rural reports 2016:1). Uppsala: Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.  https://pub.epsilon.slu.se/14600/ 

WWF (2015). Lessons in climate smart policies: A framework for integrated low carbon resiliient development (WWF report, February 2016). Gland: WWF International.  

Scientific journal article

Some journals are only published electronically. Articles in these types of journals therefore have an article number instead of page numbers.   

Include, if available: 

  • Article author(s) 
  • Year 
  • Title 
  • Journals' title 
  • Volume and number  
  • Page numbers/Article number 
  • Persistent link 

The reference is written as follows: 

Article author (Year)TitleJournal’s titel. Volume (Number), Page numbers/Article number.  Persistent link  

In-text citation: 

(Hawes 1993) 

(Isoe et al. 2019)  

(Parker et al 2019) 

In the reference list: 

Hawes, D.K. (1993). Marketing tourism destinations: a strategic approach. Journal of travel research, 31, 74-75. 

Isoe, J., Koch, L.E., Isoe, Y.E., Rascón, A.A., Jr., Brown, H.E., Massani, B.B. & Miesfeld, R.L. (2019). Identification and characterization of a mosquito-specific eggshell organizing factor in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. PLoS Biology, 17(1), e3000068. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000068 

Parker, H.J., Bronner, M.E. & Krumlauf , R. (2019). An atlas of anterior hox gene expression in the embryonic sea lamprey head: hox-code evolution in vertebrates. bioRxiv, 571448. https://doi.org/10.1101/571448 

Secondary source

If possible, you should always refer to the original source, but sometimes this is not possible, and you are forced to cite source that refers to the original source.  

You should include both sources in your in-text citation. Put the original source first, and the secondary source (the source you have read) after. In the reference list you should only include the secondary source  

You write the reference for the secondary source according to the recommendations for its type of material. 

In-text citation: 

(Gray, Toombs & Groos 2015 see MacDonald 2016) 

In the reference list: 

MacDonald, C.M. (2016). “It Takes a Village”: On UX Librarianship and Building UX Capacity in Libraries. Journal of Library Administration, 57 (2), 1-21 

Software, code, and applications

If you have used a specific software in order to analyse and get a result, you have to cite it. The reference must include the version of the software or application you used. Specify location and producer if the software is not available online. 

Include, if available: 

  • Source (person, organization, company etc.) 
  • Year 
  • Title of software/program 
  • Version 
  • [Software]/[Application]/[Code] 
  • Link 
  • [Date] if link is not persistent link  

The reference is written as follows: 

Source (Year). Title of software (version)[Software]. Link [Date] 

In-text citation: 

(Blondel 2019) 
(OSGeo 2019) 
(Zalar 2019) 

In the reference list: 

Blondel, E. (2019). OpenFairViewer (1.0.1) [Code]. [2019-03-01] http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2574576  

OSGeo (2019). GRASS GIS (7.4) [Software]. https://grass.osgeo.org/ 

Zalar, B. (2019). Timberlog – timber log volume calculator (5.0.3) [Mobile application]. 

Standards

SIS (Swedish standards institute) provides both national and international standards within different fields. Every standard has a title and a unique label including year of publication. Include the label in the title to make sure the version for the standard is clear. 

Include, if available: 

  • Source 
  • Year 
  • Title 
  • Number 
  • Place of publication  
  • Publisher 

The reference is written as follows: 

Source (Year). Title (number)Place of publicationPublisher 

In-text citation: 

(SIS 2015) 

In the reference list: 

SIS (2015). SS-EN ISO 14001:2015 Miljöledningssystem – Krav och vägledning (ISO 14001:2015). Stockholm: Swedish Standards Institute 

Statistics

These instructions apply to excerpts from a database, e.g. SCB or WHOSIS. If you are citing a published compilation of statistics, cite it as a report.  

Often when extracting statistics certain parameters are used. So, in addition to including information of where you have taken the statistics your reference should also include information about the used parameters. From SCB you get a persistent link to a website with a descriptive title, which makes it easier to find the statistics you have used. Because the link is persistent you do not have to add the date. If you extract statistics from other databases, or/and are unsure if the link is persistent or not, add the date for when you visited the website.  

Include, if available:  

  • Source  
  • Year 
  • Title 
  • Version or date for update  
  • Publisher/database host  
  • Link 
  • [Dateif link is not a persistent link 

The reference is written as follows: 

Source (Year). Title. (Version/date). Publisher. Link [Date] 

In-text citation: 

(SCB 2019) 
(WHO 2018) 

In the reference list: 

SCB (2019). Utsläpp och upptag av växthusgaser från markanvändning, förändrad markanvändning och skogsbruk efter växthusgas, delsektor och år. Statistiska centralbyrån.http://www.statistikdatabasen.scb.se/sq/63459 

WHO (2018). Concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), exposure country average. (Uppdaterad 2018-05-16). Global health observatory data repository.  http://apps.who.int/gho/data/view.main.SDGPM25116v?lang=en [2019-02-07] 

Student thesis

Includeif available: 

  • Author(s) 
  • Year 
  • Title 
  • Series and number 
  • University  
  • Department/Programme 
  • Persistent link 

The reference is written as follows: 

Last name(s), First name(s) initial. (Year). Title. (Series Thesis number). University. Department/ProgrammePersistent link 

In-text citation: 

(Carlsson & Engerström 2010) 

In the reference list: 

Carlsson, Y. & Engerström, M. (2010). Utvärdering av equivästens användbarhet som hjälpmedel i ryttarens sitsträning. (Fördjupningsarbete 2010: 392) Sveriges lantbruksuniversitetHippologenheten/Hippologprogrammet.   

Unpublished works

If you want to cite a text that is not published, you should add information in the citation that the work is not published in brackets, e.g. [Unpublished manuscript] or [Internal material].  

Include all available information about the source you cite. If there is no information about year you write (n.d.), the abbreviation for “no date”. 

In-text citation: 

(Andersson 2002) 
(SLU-biblioteket 2020) 

In the reference list: 

Andersson, B.C. (2002) Source of pollution in the ocean. [Unpublished manuscript]. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife. Michigan: Michigan University 

SLU-biblioteket (2020). Verksamhetsberättelse. [Internal material]. [2020-02-04] 

Website, blog post, forum and social media

Websites 

When you use material you have found on the internet it is important that you first of all find out what type of source it is. Is it for example a report or an article the reference should be written according to the instructions for those kinds of sources and not as a website. If the website does not have a year of publication use the abbreviation n.d. (meaning no date)  

Include, if available: 

  • Source (Author/organisation/institution)  
  • Year (when the website was updated last)  
  • Title  
  • Link 
  • [Datewhen you visited the website  

The reference is written as follows: 

Source (Year. Title. Link [Date] 

In-text citation: 

(Jordbruksverket 2014) 
(Architecture workroom Brussels u.å) 

In the reference list: 

Jordbruksverket (2014). Markavvattning och dagvatten. http://www.jordbruksverket.se/amnesomraden/odling
/draneringochbevattning/markavvattningochdagvatten.
4.7a446fa211f3c824a0e8000171076.html [2014-06-13]

Architecture workroom Brussels (n.d). Guide plan - Brussels Canal. http://www.architectureworkroom.eu/en/work/guide_plan_brussels_canal/ [2020-02-06] 

Blog post, forum and social media 

Include, if available: 

  • Source (Author/organisation/institution)  
  • Year (when the website was updated last)  
  • Titel of the post  
  • Name of blog/forum  
  • [Blog post] / [Twitter] / [Forum] 
  • Date for the post  
  • Link 
  • [Date] when you visited the website 

The reference is written as follows: 

Source (Year). Title of post. Name of blog/forum. [Blog post]/[Twitter]/[Forum]. Date for the post. Link [Date] 

In-text citation: 

(New Scientist 2020) 

(Rhodin 2018) 

(Thompson 2010) 

In the reference list: 

New Scientist (2020). A lazy cave salamander didn’t move from the same spot for 7 years. @newscientist. [Twitter]. 4 of Februaryhttps://twitter.com/newscientist/status/1224679189053394944 [2020-02-06] 

Rhodin, M. (2018). Projekt IslandshästRörelseforskning  häst och ryttare – en forskarblogg från SLU. [Blog post]. 17 of Mayhttp://blogg.slu.se/rorelseforskning/2018/05/17/projekt-islandshast/ [2020-02-06] 

Thompson, M. (2010). 78% have experienced a vendor audit in the last year. The ITAM review forum. [Forum]. 2 of Decemberhttp://www.itassetmanagement.net/2010/12/02/78-experienced-vendor-audit-year/ [2011-06-29] 

Facts:

Links in references:  

We recommend that persistent links are primarily used, if it is available. Examples of persistent links are DOI, URN and Handle ID. A persistent link works even if the document is moved to another website. If you use a regular link in your reference you need to include a date for when you visited the web page.