Coordinated goods transport in the agricultural sector to promote a sustainable transport system
The main objective of this current work was to map out the material flow within, to and from the agricultural sector in Uppsala region and to investigate the possibilities of IT-supported co-ordinated transport of agricultural produce and agricultural means of production. This may lead to effective transport-logistics through effective utilisation of vehicles and thereafter enable to meet the current demand for attenuating environmental impacts. Goods from both animal and crop productions are considered for the study.
The specific objectives were to:
- Map out goods flow from farms to industries and other destinations,
- Map out goods flow from industries and other destinations to farms,
- Map out goods flow among farms,
- Map out goods transported by tractors from farms to depots,
- Investigate possibilities of loading different goods on the same truck during the same trip and thus co-ordinate transports,
- Identify constraints that limit the possibilities of co-ordination,
- Investigate co-ordination possibilities in the study regions, and
- Conduct environmental impact analysis of co-ordinated transport of agricultural produce and means of production.
The conclusions from the study were that:
- Planning of production and orders may result in a uniform flow of goods, which simplifies long term transport planning;
- Transport intensity caused by seasonal variations of grain delivery is an obstacle to efficient transport planning;
- Coordination through return hauling can be improved if seasonal variations are minimised;
- Maximum load capacity utilization level can be reached if only distribution and delivery systems are integrated;
- Location of storage facilities is of major importance to the transport system’s environmental impact;
- Fodder transport is a substantial part of all grain related transport, and is practically possible to co-ordinate with grain transport;
- Grain delivery using tractor, in comparison with delivery using lorries, increases emission per unit grain delivered, and increases waiting time at the delivery point;
- There is a great possibility to co-ordinate milk and meat distribution in the Uppsala region;
- Route optimisation could shorten routes (up to 29%), particularly routes with many delivery points; and
- The developed model did describe material flow and emissions satisfactory.
Funding organization: VINNOVA
Development of Mobile or Semi-mobile Abattoir
The objective of the project was to map out possibilities and constrains associated with mobile abattoirs for cattle, sheep, swine and poultry, and to identify pertinent and steering parameters and factors which may determine the development and implement of mobile abattoirs.
The project included a literature review, study visits to abattoirs for cattle and swine and a mobile abattoir for deer. Interviews with relevant individuals and organisations were also carried out.
The proposals for the mobile abattoirs are based on the rules and regulations set up by 'Livsmedelsverket' concerning slaughter hygiene and the animal protection act concerning handling of slaughter animals. In common, for cattle, sheep swine and poultry slaughter, the suggested mobile abattoir comprises the following components: a component for stunning, slaughter and cooling and a separate cooling component for transportation of meat. In the semi-mobile abattoir, there will also be a component for butchering of meat. Water of good hygienic quality in sufficient amounts are needed. Slaughter waste may be decomposed after being heated to 70? C, which might be a problem in mobile abattoir. In semi-mobile, the waste could be handled easily.
It is assumed that mobile and semi-mobile abattoirs could lead to a better handling of slaughter animals, which might decrease stress and give a better quality of meat. If transport of live animals could cease, as with mobile abattoirs, many factors related to stress could be eliminated. But there will always be some factors, for example, pre-loading handling that can lead to stress even in mobile abattoir system. The skills and knowledge of the personal handling the animals is very important for good animal welfare. Decreased transport, as with semi-mobile abattoirs, lead to reduction of pressure on the environment.
• Girma Gebresenbet
• Eva Hedberg
• Farmers’ and abattoirs’ representatives
Effect of transport time on animal welfare with special focus on road and sea transport
a) What is the acceptable transport time limit that may not compromise animal welfare?
b) What is the effect of transport time as compared to other stress inducing factors?
c) Is there any transport time limit where transporting of animals is almost impossible even
if other conditions such as trained drivers, good quality vehicles,
better stocking density, availability of water and fodder, are fulfilled?
d) Is there any sufficient information regarding sea transport?
e) What are the critical moments for animals during sea transport?
f) In addition to transport time, what can be done to improve animal welfare during sea transport?
g) How is transport sickness for different animal categories and species?
Brief literature review has been performed and conclusions were made on the following questions:
- Transport sickness
- Transport time and its limitations
- Critical transport time:
- Sea transport
- Mortality rate and transport
- Causes of mortality:
- Accepted range of mortality rate
- Critical moments for sea transport
Investigating the impact of small-scale abattoir on environment and animal welfare
A good welfare of animals and adequate meat quality and safety in the production chain is the current societal demand. However, transport of animals from farms to abattoirs both in terms of transport time and distance is constantly increasing due to specialization and decrease number of abattoirs. Poor handling and long transport imposes stress on animals and compromises their welfare and health and finally reduces the meat quality. Transport has negative not only welfare and meat quality, but also on environment in the form of pollution emanated from the emission of vehicle.
In the recent years, flow of meat to Sweden from distance (including from Latin America and Australia) is increasing and the consumers are loosing confidence on meat, particularly after the incidence of BSE or mad cow disease, as information on the knowledge of origin of meat and how it is produced is very limited. Local and small-scale abattoirs are considered as one of the alternative solutions to the aforementioned problems.
The main objectives of the current pilot project are to
(a) estimate the environmental benefits of small scale abattoir as related to transport,
(b) investigate the consumers attitude towards local meat production, and
(c) investigate the self-sufficiency of the region in terms of meat production, and
(d) investigate the benefits of small scale abattoirs in relation to animal welfare and meat quality.
The pilot study has been performed on the case of Ockelbo small-scale abattoir, which is located 154 km from Uppsala. Currently, slaughter animals are transported from Ockelbo areas to Uppsala, and the Ockelbo abattoir is planning to start in the near future.
Project leader: Girma Gebresenbet
Promoting effective goods distribution through route optimization and coordination to attenuate environmental impact: the case of Uppsala
The project reports the study made on the food distribution in and around Uppsala town to map out the system and to investigate the possibilities of co-ordinated distribution to promote an economically effective and environmentally sustainable distribution system.
The project was conducted collaboratively by Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Transport Research Institute, TFK, and the environmental section of Uppsala communal administration. Thirteen food producing and distributing companies have been participated in the project.
Prof Girma Gebresenbet, Girma.Gebresenbet@bt.slu.se
Tel: +46 18 671901
Department of Biometry and Engineering,
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
TFK, Transport Research Institute,
Universitetens samordning av godstransporter: En Kartläggning av godstransporter inom Uppsala universitet och Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet
Syftet med denna studie var att kartlägga och analysera godstransporter vid Uppsala universitet och Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet för att erhålla kunskapsunderlag som kan ligga till grund för en samordningsmodell för transporterna mellan och inom de båda universiteten, med hänsyn till miljö och ekonomi.
Kartläggningen genomfördes genom intervjuer med intendenter och annan personal som arbetade med transporterna. Vid intervjuerna behandlades transportorganisation, postterminal och hantering av posten, interna och externa transporter samt transporter mellan Uppsala universitet och Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet. Dessutom tillfrågades de intervjuade om sina uppfattningar om transportsystemet.
Transporterna vid SLU följer ett annat mönster. SLU har en egen serviceenhet, SLU post & Transport (SLU P&T), som hanterar transporter inom Ultuna området. Externpost hämtas på morgonen från Postens terminal och delas ut tillsammans med internposten med två postbilar under olika postrundor. Internpost levereras två gånger per dag. Externa paket som ska skickas med Posten eller andra budfirmor hämtas i första hand hos avsändaren vid respektive institution. Externpost, tillsammans med en del insamlade paket hämtas senare av Posten på eftermiddagen. Liksom vid UU varierar mängden av varuleveranser till institutionerna från 3 paket per veckan till närmare 25 paket per dag. Vid SLU P&T används även en lastbil för tunga transporter som beställs av institutionerna (t.ex. hämtning av gas och flytande kväve, kontorspapper, kadaver och returpapper).
De flesta som arbetar inom universitetens transportsystem tycker att nuvarande transportsystemet fungerar väl, men att det ändå finns mycket att förbättra. Rutinerna för godsmottagning är ett problem vid båda universiteten. Ofta saknas en person som är ansvarig för godsmottagning och det tar tid att hitta någon som kan kvittera leveranserna. Det har förekommit att gods har blivit förstört eller försvunnit på grund av att det inte blivit rätt omhändertaget. Vid UU finns dock flera exempel på att det fungerar bättre då man har en särskild godsmottagning för ett område. Ett annat problem är säkerheten vid transporter av gas och flytande kväve, som i vissa fall sker med vanlig personbil utan särskild säkerhetsutrustning.
Godsmottagningen skulle kunna förbättras genom att fungerande godsmottagningar byggdes ut vid UU:s intendenturområden. Vid SLU skulle SLU P&T:s postterminal kunna användas även som godsterminal. Internposten vid UU skulle sannolikt kunna distribueras effektivare och med mindre miljöpåverkan om all internpost samordnades i ett gemensamt system. Vid SLU skulle de interna transporterna kunna utvecklas till att även omfatta inkommande och avgående paket.
SLU P&T är ett av flera exempel på gemensamma servicefunktioner vid SLU och UU. Det finns anledning att se över möjligheterna att samordna även dessa mellan universiteten.
Ett hinder för att införa samordnade transporter är de anställdas osäkerhet inför förändringar. En invändning är att man tror att en samordning skulle innebära försenade leveranser och begränsad valfrihet vid beställning av varor. Det är därför viktigt att alla berörda får möjlighet att vara delaktiga i hur förändringar skall genomföras.
Denna kartläggning bör kompletteras med fortsatta undersökningar. Ett område där fördjupade studier krävs är de externa varuleveranserna, som var svåra att få grepp om inom ramen för denna studie. En aktuell och korrekt kartläggning är ett kraftfullt verktyg för planering av förändringar i transportorganisationen, såväl som för gemensamma upphandlingar. Undersökningen ger därför förslag till hur kartläggningen kan kompletteras och fördjupas ytterligare.
Appropriate Agricultural Rural Transport for East Africa
It is now widely accepted that poverty is a multi-dimensional problem and needs to be addressed as such. Poor communities of rural, peri- and urban communities of East Africa remain isolated from mainstream development. The poor face lack of transport services and have to walk for many hours a day, with poor access to schools, health centres and water among many social services. This situation limits human capability hence lack of income and consumption. Poor access to assets and technologies means that production for the market is unlikely and production for the household, is time and energy intensive. Energy intensive activities in East Africa are a preserve of women folk, therefore gender inequality is highly prevalent.
Poverty, a multi-dimensional phenomenon and has been defined (World Bank, 1999) in terms of inability to satisfy basic needs, lack of control over resources, lack of education and skill, poor health, malnutrition, lack of shelter, poor access to water and sanitation, vulnerability to shocks, violence and crime, lack of political freedom and voice. In terms of income, human capacity, time use, social participation and productive, secure or risk-free life, rural as much as urban survival has great links between transport services and poverty.
This is particularly true for East Africa where porterage by women remains the principal mode of transport. Women play a major role in rural transport, predominantly for agriculture and livestock chores or marketing in high potential areas and for water and energy in semi-arid and arid areas. The estimates for Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda are 3 hours per day or 19 to 21 % of female active time. 90% of travel and transport and 85% of total load carried is by exclusively by women and children. Generally, the loads carried are 20 to 35 kg - comprising mainly water and fuel-wood along distances of upto 15 km (Mhalila and Lema, 1997). Existing forms of transport services are inefficient and limited, as inadequate infrastructure and other factors, keep the poor away from social assets. Geographical isolation and poor access, in turn, keep the poor away from participation in labour and product markets and curtail their economic opportunities such as market information on one hand and production of higher value products on the other.
Previous research and development projects in rural transport services have taken the conventional approach, focusing on roads and motor vehicles. This approach has consequently not tackled the real constraints.
It is evident that previous studies on transport services in Kenya have not tackled livelihood issues of the poor in a systematic and integrated manner such as:
- Understanding the travel and transport needs of rural communities, with concern for multi-sectoral development and mapping of marketing and logistical layouts for efficiency, across agricultural and other product market proximity and other factors,
- Lack of income, employment, human capability etc. hence insecurity and vulnerability to natural, social and economic shocks,
- Increased risk as infrastructural advances like highways bring about external influences, isolation for some, competition, disease, accidents etc. while ignoring the role hence a quantification of the development gains associated with village travel needs, rural access roads and paths or tracks across foot bridges,
- Transport needs and their links with other sectoral development matters such as in agriculture, health and education,
- Involvement of individuals in societal decision making, in harmony with the concerns of the broader society, including gender and environment,
- Inclusion of intermediate means of transport and rural operators as active members of the transport industry.
NRI/CPHP: Natural Resources International – Crop Post-harvest Programme
SIDA: Swedish International Development Agency
DFID/IUDD/SL: Infrastructure and Urban Development Department / Sustainable Livelihoods Programme
Dr. Pascal G. Kaumbutho PhD CEng MIAgrE
Telephone number : +254 2 766939
Fax number : +254 2 766939
E.Mail address : KENDAT@AfricaOnline.co.ke
Prof. Girma Gebresenbet
Dr David Ljungberg
Transport and logistics
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Dept of Biometry and Engineering,
P.O. Box 7033,
S-750 70 Uppsala Sweden.
Tel: +46-18-67 1000
Mr. David H. O’Neill
International Development Group
Silsoe Research Institute
Wrest Park. Silsoe. Bedford.
MK45 4HS England.
Dr. Colin Edwin Oram
IMT Design and manufacture
Development Technology Unit,University of Warwick,
Coventry CV4 7AL England
Dr. Pascal G. Kaumbutho (Team Leader)
Agricultural mechanization, participatory rural development and animal traction
P. O Box 61441
Telephone number : +254 2 766939
Ms Cecilia Kinuthia-Njenga
Gender and environment
P.O. Box 61694, Nairobi. Kenya
Peter R. Njenga
Transport planning economics and ploicy
P.O. Box 30776,
Dr. Niklas Sieber
Formerly with International Forum for Rural Transport and Development (IFRTD), London
Review and Analysis of Rural Agricultural Transport and Logistics in Developing Countries
Funding organization: FAO
Project leader: Prof Girma Gebresenbet, Girma.Gebresenbet@bt.slu.se
Tel: +46 18 671901
Work performance, physiological and behavioural responses of camels when pulling carts and sledges
The current project deals with the working performances of different camel breeds in Kenya in relation to physiological and behavioral responses when pulling loads in agricultural and forest fields. Investigations were made on three dromedary camels of 4-5 years old, two of them were crossbreed of “Pakistani” and “Somali” referred to as camels 817 and 822, and the third one, a pure “Pakistani” breed, referred as camel 825 were used for this study. The study determined the maximum load in relation to heart rates, speed and behavioural responses of camels when pulling loaded carts and sledges. Continuous measurements of heart rate and speed were made and behaviour of the animals were observed during the pulling exercise. The camels pulled loads with carts and sledges for 15 minutes to 3 hours on 300 m to 13.6 km farm tracks before showing signs of tiredness and refusal to move. Within 4-5 minutes when the camels started working, the heart rate increased rapidly from the initial value of 50 bpm to a steady state values between 73-111 bpm (increased by 44-178 percent) when pulling loaded sledge and cart for the three camels. When the loads were removed the heart rates dropped rapidly to the minimum of 50 bpm within 8-15 minutes. The maximum load of 562 kg pulled was 119, 124 and 143% of the live weights for crossbred camels 817 and 822 and pure “Pakistani” camel 825, respectively. The load-live weight ratios of the three camels were 83-143% and 33-64% for cart and sledge, respectively. In the static condition, the pull-live weight ratios for cart and sledge were 48-73% and 24-73% respectively. In the moving conditions, the pull-live weight ratios ranged from 29-51% and 15-30%.
As loads increased over test distances and days, animal behaviour altered through reduced speed, refusal to walk, sitting, palliating, sweating, urinating, vocalization, and defecation. The average pulling speed ranged from 1 to 1.8 m/s for the three camels for both implements. The fastest speed was reported for Pakistani x Somali crossbreed camel 822, when pulling the highest load of 562 kg over 1.6 km with the cart. The pure Pakistani camel was the lightest in weight (3920 N) and it pulled the 562 kg load, which was 143% of its own body weight for only 15 minutes over 300 m of the track. In the current work, the concept of Performance Index has been introduced to determine the optimum load animals could pull without compromising their welfare.
Project Group: Prof Girma Gebresenbet
Department of Biometry and Engineering, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU),
P.O Box 7032, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
Tel: +46 18 671901
Dr Pascal G Kambutho, Kenya
Mr Peter Simkin, Kenya
Dr Emmanuel Y.H. Bobobee, Ghana