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Christopher Raymond

I am an Interdisciplinary Social Scientist who is passionate about developing new ways of engaging local communities in initiatives that support environmental sustainability and human well-being. This passion is reflected in my mission of Connecting People, Place and Prosperity.


My three main research themes are:

1) Engaging local citizens in environmental planning using public participation GIS, among other stakeholder engagement techniques (People)

2) Fostering connections between people and place by identifying and assessing 'sense of place' and social cohesion (Place)

3) Understanding the linkages between place-based experiences and human well-being (Prosperity)


I am a Co-PI on a Swedish Research Council funded project that aims to Connect Diverse Knowledge Systems for Ecosystem Governance. We are working with project partners in Sweden, Thailand and Africa to identify ways of meaningfully combining multiple forms of knowledge as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) assessment process.

Selected publications


Journal Articles

In Press

Raymond, C.M. and Kenter, J. (in press) Transcendental values and the valuation and management of ecosystem services. Ecosystem Services.

Raymond, C.M., Guisti, M. & Barthel, S. (in press). An embodied perspective on the co-production of cultural ecosystem services: Toward embodied ecosystems. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management.

Kenter, J.,...Raymond, C.M. et al. (in press). Shared values and deliberative valuation: Future directions. Ecosystem Services.

​Lechner, A., McIntynre, N., Raymond, C.M., Witt, K., Rifkin, W, Arnold, S, Scott, M. (in press). Planning in mining regions: a review and integrated modelling framework for addressing social, ecological and economic challenges. Environmental Modelling and Software.

Tengö, M., Hill, R., Malmer, P., Raymond, C.M., Spierenburg, M., Danielsen, F., Elmqvist, T., Folke, C. (in press) Weaving knowledge systems in IPBES, CBD and beyond – lessons learned for sustainability. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability.

Van Riper, C., Landon, A.C., Kidd, S., Toledo, D., Bitterman, P., Fitzgerlad, L.A., Granek, E.F., Ibarra, S., Iwaniec, D. & Raymond, C.M.,  (in press) A conceptual model of the socio-cultural drivers of ecosystem service valuation and the importance of diverse forms of knowledge. Bioscience.


​Raymond, C.M., Reed, M., Bieling, C., Robinson, G.M., Plieninger, T. (2016). Integrating multiple understandings of landscape stewardship into the design of agri-environmental schemes. Environmental Conservation.

​Raymond, C.M., Gottwald, S., Kouppa, J., Kyttä, M. (2016). Integrating multiple elements of environmental justice into urban blue space planning using public participation GIS.  Landscape and Urban Planning. 153:198-208.

Raymond, C.M., Plieninger, T., Fagerholm, N., Bieling, C., and Martin-Lopez, B (2016). The farmer as a landscape steward: Exploring the relationships between landscape values, landscape stewardship and ecosystem management. AMBIO. DOI: 10.1007/s13280-015-0694-0.

Fagerholm, N, Osteros, Rozas, E., Raymond, C.M., Torralba., M., Moreno, G., Plieninger, T. (2016). Assessing linkages between ecosystem services, land-use and well-being in an agroforestry landscape using public participation GIS. Applied Geography, 74, 30-46.

Kusmanoff, A., Hardy, M., Fidler, F., Maffey, G., Raymond, C.M., Fitzsimons, J., Reed, M., and Bekessy, S. (2016). Framing the private land conservation conversation: Strategic framing of the benefits of conservation participation could increase landholder engagement. Journal of Environmental Management, 61: 124-128.

Plieninger, T., Raymond, C.M., Oteros-Rozas, . (2016). Ecosystem services in a biome context – Rural and cultivated landscapes. In: Handbook of Ecosystem Services. R. Haines-Young, M. Potschin, R. Fish (Eds.). Routledge, UK.


Raymond, C.M., Lechner, A.M., Lockwood, M., Carter, O., Harris, R. and Gilfedder, L. (2015). Private land manager capacity to conserve threatened communities under climate change, Journal of Environmental Management 159: 235-244.

Ives, C.D., Wolnicki, M., Hardy, M., Biggs, D., Lechner, A., Raymond, C.M. (2015). Using social data in strategic environmental assessment to conserve biodiversity. Land Use Policy 47: 332-341.

Plieninger, T., Bieling, C., Fagerholm, N., Byg, A., Hartel, T., Hurley, P. … Raymond, C.M. & Huntsinger, L. (2015). The role of cultural ecosystem services in landscape management and planning. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 14: 28-33.

Brown, G., Raymond, C.M., Corcoran, J. (2015). Mapping and measuring place attachment. Applied Geography, 57: 42-53.

Lechner, A., Brown, G. & Raymond, C.M. (2015).  Modeling the impact of future development and public conservation orientation on landscape connectivity for conservation planning. Landscape Ecology 30: 699-713.

Lockwood, M., Raymond, C.M., Morrison, M., Oczowski, E. (2015). Measuring the dimensions of adaptive capacity: A psychometric approach. Ecology & Society 20(1): 37.


Raymond, C.M. (2014). Identifying and assessing conservation opportunity. Conservation Biology 28:1447-1450.

Moon, K, Adams, V.M., Januchowski-Hartley, S.R., Polyakov, M., Mills, M., Biggs, D., Knight, A., Game, E.T., Raymond, C.M. (2014). A multidisciplinary conceptualization of conservation opportunity. Conservation Biology 28(6): 1484-96.

Lechner, A., Gordon, A., Raymond, C.M, et al. (2014). Characterizing spatial uncertainty when integrating social data in conservation planning. Conservation Biology 28(6): 1497-1511.

Raymond, C.M., Kenter, J., Plieninger, T., and Turner, N. (2014). Comparing instrumental and deliberative paradigms underpinning the assessment of social values for cultural ecosystem services. Ecological Economics 107: 145-156.

Brown, G. & Raymond, C.M. (2014). Methods for identifying conflict potential using participatory mapping. Landscape and Urban Planning,122: 196-208.

Whitehead, A.L., Kujala, H. Ives, C.D., Gordon, A., Lentini, P, Wintle, B., Nicholson, E, Raymond, C.M. (2014). Integrating biological and social values when prioritising places for biodiversity conservation.  Conservation Biology 28(4): 992-1003.


Raymond, C.M., Singh, G., Benessaiah, K., Nelson, H., Turner, N.J., & Chan, K. (2013).  Engaging multiple disciplines in ecosystem services research and assessment: A reply to Orenstein.  BioScience 63(2): 913.

Raymond, C.M., Singh, G., Benessaiah, K., Bernhard, J.R., Levine, J, Nelson, H., Turner, N.J., Norton, B., Tam, J & Chan, K. (2013).  Ecosystem services and beyond: Using multiple metaphors to understand human-environment relationships. BioScience 63(7): 536-546.

Raymond, C.M. & Knight, A.T. (2013). Applying social research techniques to improve the effectiveness of conservation planning. Bioscience 63(5): 320-321.

Raymond, C.M. & Spoehr, J. (2013). The acceptability of climate change in agricultural communities: Comparing responses across variability and change. Journal of Environmental Management 115: 69-77.

Raymond, C.M. & Robinson, G.M. (2013). Factors affecting rural landholders’ adaptation to climate change: Insights from formal institutions and communities of practice.  Global Environmental Change 23(1):103-114.

Raymond, C.M. & Cleary, J. (2013). A tool and process which facilitates community capacity building and social learning for natural resource management. Ecology and Society 18(1): 25.

Reed, M.S., Fazey, I., Stringer, L.C., Raymond, C.M., Akhtar-Schuster, M., Begni, G., Bigas, H., Brehm, S., Briggs, J., Chanda, R., Davies, J., Diez, E., Essahli, W., Geeson, N., Hartmann, I., Holden, J., Ioris, I., Kruger, B., Laureano, P., Phillipson, J., Prell, C., Quinn, C.H., Reeves, A.D., Seely, M., Thomas, R., van der Werff, Ten Bosch, M.J., Vergunst, P., & Wagner, L. (2013). Knowledge management for land degradation monitoring and assessment: An analysis of contemporary thinking. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.112


Raymond, C.M., Brown, G., & Robinson, G.M. (2011). The influence of place attachment, and moral and normative concerns on the conservation of native vegetation: A test of two behavioural models.  Journal of Environmental Psychology, 31(4): 323-335.

Raymond, C.M., & Brown, G. (2011a). Assessing spatial associations between perceptions of landscape value and climate change risk for use in climate change planning. Climatic Change 104: 653–678.

Raymond, C.M., & Brown, G. (2011b). Assessing conservation opportunity on private land: Socio-economic, behavioural and spatial dimensions.  Journal of Environmental Management, 92(10): 2513-2523.

Bryan, B.A., Raymond, C.M., Crossman, N.D., & King, D. (2011). Comparing spatially explicit ecological and social values for natural areas to identify effective conservation strategies. Conservation Biology 25(1): 172-181

Pettit, C.J., Raymond, C.M., Bryan, B.A., & Lewis. H. (2011). Identifying strengths and weaknesses of landscape visualisation for effective communication of future alternatives.  Landscape and Urban Planning 3: 231-241.

Reed M.S., Buenemann, M., Atlhopheng, J., Akhtar-Schuster, M., Bachmann, F., Bastin, G., Bigas, H., Chanda, R., Dougill, A.J., Essahli, W., Fleskens, L., Geeson, N., Hessel, R., Holden, J., Ioris, A., Kruger, B., Liniger, H.P., Mphinyane, W., Nainggolan, D., Perkins, J., Raymond, C.M., Ritsema, C., Schwilch, G., Sebego, R., Seely, M., Stringer, L.C., Thomas, R., Twomlow, S., &Verzandvoort, S. (2011). Cross-scale monitoring and assessment of land degradation and sustainable land management: A methodological framework for knowledge management. Land Degradation and Development 22(2): 261-271.


Raymond, C.M., Brown, G., & Weber, D. (2010).  The measurement of place attachment: Personal, community and environmental connections. Journal of Environmental Psychology 30(4): 422-434.

 Raymond, C.M., Fazey, I., Reed, M.S., Stringer, L.C., Robinson, G.M., &Evely, A.C. (2010). Integrating local and scientific knowledge for environmental management. Journal of Environmental Management 91: 1766-1777.

Bryan, B.A., Raymond, C.M., Hatton MacDonald, D., & Crossman, N. (2010). Targeting management of ecosystem services based on social values: Where, what and how? Landscape and Urban Planning 97(2): 111-122.

Reed, M.S., Evely, A.C., Cundill, G., Fazey, I., Glass, J., Laing, A., Newig, J., Parrish, B., Prell C., Raymond, C.M., & Stringer, L.C. (2010). What is social learning? Ecology and Society 15(4): r1.

2009 and earlier

Raymond, C.M., Bryan, B.A., Hatton MacDonald, D., Cast, A., Strathearn, S., Grandgirard, A., &Kalivas, T. (2009). Mapping community values for natural capital and ecosystem services. Ecological Economics 68: 1301-1315.

Brown, G., & Raymond, C.M. (2007). The relationship between place attachment and landscape values: Toward mapping place attachment. Applied Geography,27(2), 89-111.

Raymond, C.M., & Brown, G. (2007).  A spatial method for assessing resident and visitor attitudes toward tourism growth and development. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15(5): 520-540.

Raymond, C.M., & Brown, G. (2006). A method for assessing protected area allocations using a typology of landscape values. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 49(6): 797-812. 

Pestell A.J., Raymond, C.M., Walton, H., Petit, S. and Gibbs, J. (2003). Abundance of sea spurge (Euphorbia paralias) on the foredune at Long Beach, Robe, South Australia, and implications for dune stabilisation. South Australian Naturalist 77: 12-15.

Books, Book Chapters and Reviews

Plieninger, T., Raymond, C.M., Oteros-Rozas (2016). Cultivated Landscapes. In: Handbook of Ecosystem Services. Eds. M. Potschin, R. Haines-Young, R. Fish, K. Turner. Routledge, UK.

Raymond, C.M. (2013).  Review of “Place Attachment: Advances in Theory, Methods and Applications”. Estudios de Psicología, 34 (23): 345-348.

Raymond, C.M. (2009), Review of ‘Rural Sustainable Development in the Knowledge Society’.K. Bruckmeier and H. Tovey (Eds.). Land Use Policy doi:10.1016/j.landusepol.2009.10.015. 


For more information about my research interests, please visit