Ph.D. in Forestry. 2005. University of Montana, Department of Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences, Missoula, Montana, USA.
M.Sc. in Biology (Botany). 2001. Michigan Technological University, Department of Biological Sciences, Houghton, Michigan, USA.
B.Sc. in Wildlife Biology. 1996. University of Montana, School of Forestry, Missoula, Montana, USA.
Grau-Andres, R., P. Kardol, and M.J. Gundale. Trait coordination in boreal mosses reveals a bryophyte economics spectrum. Journal of Ecology: In press.
Fanin, N., K.E. Clemmensen, B.D. Lindahl, M. Farrell, M-C. Nilsson, M.J. Gundale, P. Kardol, D.A. Wardle. Ericoid shrubs shape fungal communities and suppress organic matter decomposition in boreal forests. New Phytologist: In press.
Pingree, M.R., P. Kardol, M-C Nilsson, D.A. Wardle, N.I. Maaroufi, and M.J. Gundale. No evidence that conifer biochar impacts soil functioning by serving as microbial refugia in boreal soils. Global Change Biology Bioenergy: In press.
Blasco, R., B. Forsmark, M.J. Gundale, T. Lundmark, and A. Nordin. The carbon sequestration response of aboveground biomass and soils to nutrient enrichment in boreal forests depends on baseline site productivity. Science of the Total Environment: In press.
Gundale, M.J. The impact of anthropogenic nitrogen deposition on global forests: negative impacts far exceed the carbon benefits. Global Change Biology: DOI: 10.1111/gcb.15959
Ibáñez, T.S., T. Rütting, M-C. Nilsson, D.A. Wardle, and M.J. Gundale. Mid-term Effects of Wildfire and Salvage Logging on Gross and Net Soil Nitrogen Transformation Rates in a Swedish Boreal Forest. Forest Ecology and Management: In press.
Spitzer, C., C.M. Spitzer, M.K. Sundqvist, D.A. Wardle, M.J. Gundale, Paul Kardol. Root trait variation along a sub-arctic tundra elevational gradient. Oikos: In press.
Spitzer, C., D. Wardle, B. Lindahl, M. Sundqvist, M.J. Gundale, N. Fanin, and P. Kardol. Root traits and soil microorganisms as driers of plant-soil feedbacks within the sub-arctic tundra. Journal of Ecology: 110: 466-478.
Senior, J.K., M.J. Gundale, G.R. Iason, T.G. Whitham, and P.E. Axelsson. Progeny selection for enhanced forest growth alters soil
communities and processes. Ecosphere: 13 (2), e3943
Hupperts, S.F., S. Gerber, M-C. Nilsson, and M.J. Gundale. Empirical and Earth system model estimates of boreal nitrogen fixation often differ: a pathway toward reconciliation. Global Change Biology: 27 (22), 5711-5725
Gundale, M.J, and P. Kardol. Multi-dimensionality as a path forward in plant-soil feedback research. Journal of Ecology: 109: 3446-3465
Nuske, S. A. Fajardo, M. Nunez, A. Pauchard, D. Wardle, M-C. Nilsson, P. Kardol, J. Smith, D. Peltzer, J. Moyano, and M.J. Gundale. Soil biotic and abiotic effects on seedling growth exhibit context dependent interactions: evidence from a multi-country experiment on Pinus contorta invasion. New Phytologist: 232: 303-317.
Grau-Andres, R., M.R.A Pingree, M.G. Öquist, D.A. Wardle, M-C Nilsson, and M.J. Gundale. Biochar increases tree biomass in a managed boreal forest, but does not alter N2O, CH4 and CO2 emissions. Global Change Biology Bioenergy: 13:1329-1342.
Forsmark, B., A. Nordin, N.P. Resnstock, H. Wallander, and M.J. Gundale. Anthropogenic nitrogen enrichment increased the efficiency of belowground biomass production in a boreal forest. Soil Biology Biochemistry 155: 108154.
Bandau, F., B.R. Albrectsen, K.M. Robinson, M.J. Gundale. European aspen with high compared to low constitutive tannin defenses grow taller in response to anthropogenic nitrogen encrichment. Forest Ecology and Management 487: 118985.
Phillips et al. Global data on earthworm abundance, biomass, diversity and corresponding environmental properties. Scientific Data 8: 1-12.
Ibáñez, T., Wardle, D., Gundale, M.., and Nilsson M-C. Effects of Soil Abiotic and Biotic Factors on Tree Seedling Regeneration Following a Boreal Forest Wildfire. Ecosystems: doi.org/10.1007/s10021-021-00666-0.
Spitzer, C.M., B. Lindahl, D.A. Wardle, M.K. Sundqvist, M.J. Gundale, N. Fannin, and P. Kardol. Root trait-microbial relationships across tundra plant species. New Phytologist 229: 1508-1520.
Xu, W., W.B. Whitman, M.J. Gundale, C-C. Chien, and C.Y. Chiu. Functional response of soil microbial communities to biochar application. Global Change Biology Bioenergy 13: 269-281.
Forsmark, B., H. Wallander, A. Nordin, M.J. Gundale. Long-term nitrogen enrichment does not increase microbial phosphorus mobilization in a northern coniferous forest. Functional Ecology 35: 277-287.
Grau-Andres, R., D.A. Wardle, M.J. Gundale, C.N. Foster, P. Kardol. Effects of plant functional group removal on CO2 fluxes and belowground C stocks across contrasting ecosystems. Ecology 101: e03170.
Palviainen, M., A. Lauren, J. Pumpanen, Y. Bergeron, B. Bond-Lamberty, M Larjavaara, D.M. Kashian, K. Köster, A. Prokushkin, H.Y.H. Chen, M. Seedre, D.A. Wardle, M.J. Gundale, M.C. Nilsson, C. Wang, and F. Berninger. Decadal-scale Recovery of Carbon Stocks After Wildfires Throughout the Boreal Forests. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 34: e2020GB006612.
Forsmark, B., A. Nordin, N. maaroufi, T. Lundmark, and M.J. Gundale. Low and High nitrogen deposition rates in northern coniferous forests have different impacts on aboveground litter production, soil respiration, and soil carbon stocks. Ecosystems 23: 1423–1436.
Blasco, R., B. Forsmark, M.J. Gundale, T. Lundmark, and A. Nordin. Impacts of tree species identity and species mixing on ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks in a boreal forest. Forest Ecology and Management 458: 117783.
DeLuca T.H., M.J. Gundale, R.J. Brimmer, and S. Gao. PyC Generation from forest and Restoration Fuel Treatments. Frontiers in Forests and Global Change 3: 24.
Wardle, D., M.J. Gundale, P. Kardol, M-C. Nilsson, and N. Fanin. Impact of plant functional group and species removals on soil and plant nitrogen and phosphorous across a retrogressive chronosequence. Journal of Ecology: 108: 561-573.
Phillips, H.R., C.A. Guerra, M.L.C Bartz, et al. Global distribution of earthworm diversity. Science 366:480-485.
Maaroufi, N.I., A. Nordin, K. Palmqvist, N.J. Hasselquist, B. Forsmark, N.P. Rosenstock, H. Wallander, and M.J. Gundale. 2019. Anthropogenic nitrogen enrichment enhances soil carbon accumulation by impacting saprotrophs rather than ectomycorrhizal fungal activity. Global Change Biology 25:2900-2914.
Fanin, N., P. Kardol, M. Farrell, Anne Kempel, M. Ciobanu, M-C Nilsson, and M.J. Gundale, and D.A. Wardle. 2019. Effects of plant functional group removal on structure and function of soil communities across contrasting ecosystems. Ecology Letters 22:1095-1103.
Craine, J., A. Elemore, L. Wang, P. Boeckx, S. Delzon, Y. Fang, A. Gray, R. Guerrieri, M. J. Gundale, P. Hietz, D. Nelson, P. Peri, P. Templer, C. Werner. 2019. Reply to "Data do not support large-scale oligotrophication of terrestrial ecosystems." Nature Ecology and Evolution 3:1287-1288.
Piper, F.I. M.J. Gundale, T. Fuenzalida, and A. Fajardo. Herbivory resistance in congeneric and sympatric Nothofagus species is not related to leaf habit. American Journal of Botany 106: 788-797.
Senior, J.K. G.R. Iason, M.J. Gundale. T.G. Whitham, and P.E. Axelsson. Genetic increases in growth do not lead to trade-offs with ecologically important litter and fine root traits in Norway spruce. Forest Ecology and Management 446:54-62.
Gundale, M.J., D.A. Wardle, P. Karol, M-C. Nilsson. A comparison of plant-soil feedback experimental approaches for testing soil biotic interactions among ecosystems. New Phytologist 221:577-587.
Fanin, N., P. Kardol, M. Farrell, M-C. Nilsson, M.J. Gundale., and D.A. Wardle. The ratio of Gram-Positive to Gram-negative bacterial PLFA markers as an indicator of carbon availability in organic soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 128:111-114.
Craine, J., A.J. Elmore, J.Aranibar, M. Bauters, P. Boeck, B.E. Crowley, M. A. Dawes, S. Delzon, A. Fajardo, Y. Fang, L. Fujiyoshi, A. Gray, R. Guerrieri, M. J. Gundale, D. J. Hawke, P. Hietz, M. Jonard, E. Kearsley, T. Kenzo, M. Makarov, S. Marañón-Jiménez, T. P. McGlynn, B. E. McNeil, S. G. Mosher, D. M. Nelson, P.L. Peri, J. C. Roggy, R. Sanders-DeMott, M. Song, P. Szpak, P. H. Templer, D. Van der Colff, L. Wang, C. Werner, X. Xu, Y. Yang, G. Yu, and K. Zmudczyńska- Skarbek. Isotopic Evidence For Oligotrophication of Terrestrial Ecosystems. Nature Ecology and Evolution 2: 1735-1744.
K. Taylor-Davis, R.M. Callaway, A. Fajardo, A. Pauchard, M.A. Nuñez, R.W. Brooker, B. D. Maxwell, R.D. Dimarco, D.A. Peltzer, B. Mason, S. Ruotsalainen, A. C. S. McIntosh, R. J. Pakeman, A.L. Smith & M.J. Gundale. Severity of impacts of an introduced species corresponds with regional eco-evolutionary experience. Ecography 42: 12-22.
Scott, D., R. Bradley, J-P Bellenger, D. Houle, M. J. Gundale K. Rousk, and T.H. DeLuca. 2018. Anthropogenic deposition of heavy metals and phosphorus may reduce biological N2 fixation in boreal forest mosses. Science of the Total Environment 630:203-210.
Maaroufi, N.I., K. Palmqvist, L.H. Bach, S. Bokhorst, A. Liess, M.J. Gundale, P. Kardol, A. Nordin, C.L. Meunier. Nutrient optimization of tree growth alters structure and function of boreal soil food webs. Forest Ecology and Management 428:46-56.
Nilsson, M-C., M. J. Gundale, D.A. Wardle, and U Rasmussen. 2018. Mossornas hemliga liv tillsammans med cyanobakterier. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 112 (2): 81-89.
Fanin, N., M.J. Gundale, M. Farrell, M. Ciobanu, J. Baldock, M-C. Nilsson, P. Kardol, and D.A. Wardle. Consistent effects of biodiversity loss across contrasting ecosystems. Nature Ecology and Evolution 2:269
Fajardo, A., and M.J. Gundale. Canopy cover type, and not fine-scale resource availability, explains native and exotic species richness in a landscape affected by anthropogenic fires and posterior land-use change. Biological Invasions 20: 285-398.
Gundale, M.J. D.A. Wardle, P. Kardol, W. van der Putten, and R. Lucas. Soil handling methods should be selected based on research questions and goals. New Phytologist 216:18-23.
Maaroufi, N., A. Nordin, K. Palmqvist, and M.J. Gundale. 2017. Nitrogen enrichment impacts on boreal litter decomposition are driven by changes in soil microbiota rather than litter quality. Scientific Reports 7: 4083.
Bandau, F., B.R. Albrectsen, R. Julkunen-Tiitto, and M.J. Gundale. Genotypic variability in Populus tremula L. affects how anthropogenic nitrogen enrichment influences litter decomposition. Plant and Soil 410: 467-481.
Decker, V.H., Bandau, F., M.J. Gundale, C.T. Cole, and B.R. Albrectsen. Aspen phenylpropanoid genes' expression levels correlate with genets' tannin richness and vary both in responses to soil nitrogen and associations with phenolic profiles. Tree Physiology 37: 270-279.
Gundale, M.J., J.P. Almeida, H. Wallander, D.A. Wardle, P. Kardol, M-C. Nilsson, A. Fajardo, A. Pauchard, D. Peltzer, S. Ruotsalainen, B. Mason, and N. Rosenstock. 2016. Differences in endophyte communities of introduced trees depend on the phylogenetic relatedness of the receiving forest. Journal of Ecology 104:1219-1232.
Gundale, M.J., M-C Nilsson, N. Pluchon, D. A. Wardle. The effect of biochar management on soil and plant community properties in a boreal forest. Global Change Biology Bioenergy: 8 (4): 687-848.
Kardol, P., C.M. Spitzer, M.J. Gundale, M-C Nilsson, and D.A. Wardle. Trophic cascades in the bryosphere: The impact of global change factors on top-down control of cyanobacterial N2-fixation. Ecology Letters 19:967-976.
Maaroufi, N.I., Nordin, A., Palmqvist, K., and M.J. Gundale. Chonic nitrogen deposition has a minor effect on the quantity and quality of aboveground litter in a boreal forest. PloS ONE 11(8): e0162086.
Stuiver, B.M., D.A. Wardle, M.J. Gundale, and M-C Nilsson. Seedling responses to changes in canopy and soil properties during stand development following clear-cutting. Forest Ecology and Management 378:31-43.
Kumordzi, B.B., M.J. Gundale. M-C. Nilsson, and D.A. Wardle. Shifts in aboveground biomass allocation patterns of dominant shrub species across a strong environmental gradient. PloS ONE: 11 (6): e0157136.
Lucas, R. R. Sponseller, M.J. Gundale, J. Stendahl, J. Fridman, P. Högberg, and H. Laudon. 2016. Long-term declines in stream and river inorganic nitrogen (N) export correspond to forest change. Ecological Applications 26:545-556.
Ganzlin, P.W., M.J. Gundale, R.E. Becknell, and C.C. Cleveland. 2016. Forest restoration treatments have subtle long-term effects on soil C and N cycling in mixed conifer forests. Ecological Applications 26:1503-1516.
Sponseller, R.A., M.J. Gundale, M. Futter, E. Ring, A. Nordin, T Näsholm, and H. Laudon. 2016. Nitrogen dynamics in managed boreal forests: recent advances and future research directions. Ambio 45:175-187.
Pluchon, N., A.G. Vincent, M.J. Gundale, M-C. Nilsson, P. Kardol, and D.A. Wardle. 2016. The impact of mixtures of charcoal and humus type on decomposition and microbial communities in boreal forests. Applied Soil Ecology 99:40-50.
Meunier, C.L., M.J. Gundale, I.S. Sanchez, and A. Liess. 2016. Impact of nitrogen deposition on forest and lake food webs in nitrogen limited environments. Global Change Biology 22:164-179.
Stuiver, B.M., M.J. Gundale, D.A. Wardle, and M-C. Nilsson. 2015. Nitrogen fixation rates associated with the feather moss Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens during forest stand development following clear-cutting (347:130-139). Forest Ecology and Management 375:309.
De Long, J.R. M. K. Sundqvist, M. J. Gundale, R. Giesler, and D.A. Wardle. 2016. Effects of elevation and fertilization on plant defense compounds in subarctic tundra heath vegetation. Functional Ecology 30:314-325.
Maaroufi, N.I., A. Nordin, N.J. Hasselquist, L.H. Bach, K. Palmqvist, and M.J. Gundale. 2015. Anthropogenic nitrogen deposition enhances carbon sequestration in boreal soils. Global Change Biology 21: 3169-3180.
Bandau, F., and V.H.G. Decker, M.J. Gundale, and B.R. Albrectsen. Genotypic tannin levels in Populus tremula impact the way nitrogen enrichment affects growth and allocation responses for some traits and not for others. PloS ONE:10(10): e0140971.
Fajardo, A. and M.J. Gundale. Combined effects of anthropogenic fires and land-use change on soil properties and processes in Patagonia, Chile. Forest Ecology and Management 357:60-67.
Pluchon, N., S.C. Casetou, P. Kardol, M.J. Gundale, M-C Nilsson, and D.A. Wardle. Influence of species identity and charring conditions on fire-derived charcoal traits. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 45:1669-1675.
Jonsson, M., P. Kardol, M.J. Gundale, S. Bansal, M-C Nilsson, D.M. Metcalf, and D.A. Wardle. 2015. Direct and indirect drivers of moss community structure, function and associated microfauna across a successional gradient. Ecosystems: 18:154-169.
DeLuca, T.H., M.J. Gundale, M.D. MacKenzie, and D.L. Jones. 2015. Biochar effects on soil nutrient transformations. Chapter 18. DeLuca, T.H., M.J. Gundale, M.D. MacKenzie, and D.L. Jones. Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. 2nd edition. Earthscan Publications Ltd, London.
Piper, F.I., M.J. Gundale, and A. Fajardo. 2015. Reduced growth after extreme defoliation of a winter deciduous species is not caused by carbon or nitrogen limitations. Annals of Botany: 115:1093-1103.
Stuiver, B.M., M.J. Gundale, D.A. Wardle, and M-C. Nilsson. 2015. Nitrogen fixation rates associated with the feather moss Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens during forest stand development following clear-cutting. Forest Ecology and Management: 347:130-139.
Gundale, M.J., P. Kardol, M-C Nilsson, U. Nilsson, R.W. Lucas, and D.A. Wardle. 2014. Interactions with soil biota shift from negative to positive when a tree species is moved outside its native range. New Phytologist 202: 415-421.
Gundale, M.J., F. From, L. Back-Holmen, and A. Nordin. 2014. Nitrogen deposition in boreal forests has a minor impact on the global carbon cycle. Global Change Biology 20:276-286.
Gundale, M.J., A. Pauchard, B. Langdon, D.A. Peltzer, B.D. Maxwell, and M.A, and M.A. Nunez. 2014. Can model species advance the field of invasion ecology? Biological Invasions 16:591-607.
Pluchon, N., M.J. Gundale, M-C. Nilsson, P. Kardol, and D.A. Wardle. 2014. Stimulation of boreal tree seedling growth by wood-derived charcoal: effects of charcoal properties, seedling species, and soil fertility. Functional Ecology 28:766-775.
Stuiver, B.M., D.A. Wardle, M.J. Gundale, and M-C. Nilsson. 2014. The impact of moss species and biomas on growth ofPinus sylvestris tree seedlings at different precipitation frequencies. Forests 5:1931.1951.
Kumordzi, B.B., M.J. Gundale, M-C. Nilsson and D.A. Wardle. 2014. Characterizing how within-species variability at the within-community level changes across an island area gradient. Ecosphere: 5(3):1-17.
Bokhorst, S., D.A. Wardle, M-C. Nilsson, and M.J. Gundale. 2014. The effect of plant species and functional group removal on soil arthropod communities along a boreal forest chronosequence. Plant and Soil 379:121-133.
Gundale, M.J., L. Back-Holmen, and A. Nordin. 2013. The impact of simulated chronic nitrogen deposition on the biomass and N2-fixation activity of two boreal feather moss-cyanobacteria associations. Biology Letters 9:20130797.
Lindo, Z., M-C. Nilsson, and M.J. Gundale. 2013. Bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations as regulators of the northern latitude carbon balance in response to global change. Global Change Biology 19:2022-2035.
Wardle. D.A., M.J. Gundale, A. Jäderlund, and M-C. Nilsson. 2013. Decoupled long term effects of nutrient enrichment on aboveground and belowground properties in subalpine tundra. Ecology 94: 904-919.
Gundale, M.J., M. Nilsson, S. Bansal, and A. Jäderlund. 2012. The interactive effects of temperature and light on biological nitrogen fixation in boreal forests. New Phytologist 194:454-463.
Gundale, M.J., Hyodo, F., Nilsson, M-C. and Wardle, D.A. 2012. Nitrogen niches revealed through species and functional group removal in a boreal shrub community. Ecology 93:1695-2005.
Gundale, M.J., Wardle, D.A., Nilsson, M-C. 2012. The effect of altered macro-climate on N-fixation by boreal feather moses. Biology Letters 8:805-808.
McIntosh, A.C.S., Macdonald, S.E. and Gundale, M.J. 2012. Tree species versus regional controls on ecosystem properties and processes: an example using introduced Pinus contorta in Swedish boreal forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 42:1228-38.
Wardle, D. A., Jonsson, M., Bansal, S., Bardgett, R. D., Gundale, M. J. and D. B. Metcalfe. 2012. Linking vegetation change, carbon sequestration and biodiversity: insights from island ecosystems in a long term natural experiment. Journal of Ecology 100: 16-30.
Sundqvist, M.K., D.A. Wardle, E. Olofsson, R. Giesler, and M.J. Gundale. 2010. Chemical properties of plant litter in response to elevation: subarctic vegetation challenges phenolic allocation theories. Functional Ecology 26: 1090-1099.
Gundale, M.J., A. Fajardo, R.W. Lucas, M-C- Nilsson, and D.A. Wardle. 2011. Resource heterogeneity does not explain the diversity-productivity relationship across a boreal island fertility gradient. Ecography 34: 887-896.
Gundale, M.J., T.H. DeLuca, and A. Nordin. 2011. Bryophytes attenuate anthropogenic nitrogen inputs in boreal forests. Global Change Biology 17:2743-2753.
Gundale, M.J., D.A. Wardle, and M-C. Nilsson. 2010. Vascular plant removal effects on biological N-fixation vary across a boreal forest island gradient. Ecology 91: 1704-1714.
Gundale, M.J., Sverker, J., Albrectsen, B.R., Nilsson, M.C., and D.A. Wardle. 2010. Variation in protein complexation capacity among and within six plant species across a boreal forest chronosequence. Plant Ecology 211:253-266.
Gundale, M.J., H. Gustafsson, and M-C. Nilsson. 2009. The sensitivity of N-fixation by a cyanobacteria-feathermoss association to litter and moisture variability in young and old boreal forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research39:2542-2549.
Gundale, M.J. 2009. Nitrogen Cycling and Environmental Change in Cold Climate Ecosystems. In: Jacobsson, R. (eds). THULE 2009. Kugl. Skytteanska Samfundet. Umeå, Sweden. (ISBN: 978 91 86438 36 4)
DeLuca, T.H., M.D. MacKenzie, and M.J. Gundale. 2008. Bio-char effects on soil nutrient transformation. Chapter 14. In: Lehmann, J. and Joseph, S. (eds). Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. Earthscan Publications Ltd, London. (ISBN: 978 1 84407 658 1).
DeLuca T.H., Zackrisson O, Gundale M.J., and Nilsson M-C. (2008) Ecosystem feedbacks and nitrogen fixation in Boreal forests. Science 320:1181.
Gundale, M.J., S. Sutherland, and T.H. DeLuca. 2008. Fire, native species, and soil resource interactions influence the spatio-temporal invasion pattern of Bromus tectorum. Ecography 31:201-210.
Gundale, M.J. and T.H. DeLuca. 2007. Charcoal effects on soil solution chemistry and growth of Koeleria macrantha in the ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir ecosystem. Biology and Fertility of Soils: 43:303-311.
Gundale, M.J. and T.H. DeLuca. 2006. Temperature and source material influence ecological attributes of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir charcoal. Forest Ecology and Management 231: 86-93.
Gundale, M.J., K.L. Metlen, C.E. Fiedler, and T.H. DeLuca. 2006. Nitrogen spatial heterogeneity influences diversity following ponderosa pine restoration. Ecological Applications 16:479-489.
DeLuca, T. H., M.D. MacKenzie, and M.J. Gundale. 2006. Wildfire-produced charcoal directly influences nitrogen cycling in forest ecosystems. Soil Science Society Journal 70:448-453.
Gundale, M.J., W.H. Jolly, and T.H. DeLuca. 2005. The susceptibility of a northern hardwood forest to exotic earthworm invasion. Conservation Biology 19:1075-1083.
Gundale, M.J., T.H. DeLuca, C.E. Fiedler, P.W. Ramsay, M.G. Harrington, and J.E. Gannon. 2005. Restoration management in a Montana ponderosa pine forest: Effects on soil physical, chemical and biological properties. Forest Ecology and Management 213:25-38.
Gundale, M.J. 2002. The influence of exotic earthworms on the soil organic horizon and the rare fern Botrychium mormo. Conservation Biology 16:1555-1561.