Immature, but with great potential

Publicerad: 22 mars 2022

BSF larvae frass as an organic fertilizer

The literature review "Frass derived from black soldier fly larvae treatment of biodegradable wastes. A critical review and future perspectives." was recently published in the journal Waste Management (read the article in the link Frass derived from black soldier fly larvae treatment of biodegradable wastes. A critical review and future perspectives - ScienceDirect) by Ivã Lopes, a researcher that works with insect frass at the company Ingredient Odyssey SA in Portugal, Jean Yong, professor at SLU Alnarp and Cecilia Lalander, professor at SLU Uppsala. Waste management with insects, especially with larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, BSF) is a novel biotechnology that has been growing exponentially over the last years, due to the high efficiency in converting wastes into added-value products, namely a larval biomass to be used as feed ingredient, and a nutrient-rich fertilizer, which is called frass and can be used in agriculture.

This timely study discusses many aspects related to frass, such as its sustainability aspect, its composition and effect on multiple crops. In addition, the researchers pointed out several perspectives for future research on frass, such as the possibility of biostimulation capacity of this novel product.

Over the next few months, Ivã Lopes will join SLU as a post-doctoral researcher, and his research will focus on understanding the potential of BSF frass as a fertilizer for plants and as a soil amendment. He will conduct research in partnership with Dr Jean Yong at SLU Alnarp and with Dr. Cecilia Lalander at SLU Uppsala, as well as with Dr. Christian Zurbrugg at ETH Zurich, in Switzerland. Important advances are expected with BSF frass over the next years, and SLU will be part of this development!


Read the blogg about the review here.


  • Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae frass is discussed as a fertilizer.
  • Frass is a biologically unstable organic fertilizer.
  • Frass has multiple plant nutrients and beneficial microorganisms.
  • Frass might be a source of bioactive compounds.