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Sustainable technologies for low- and medium income countries

The objective of this course is to provide knowledge and understanding of agricultural technologies for sustainable development and resource utilization in low and medium income countries. Participatory research, socio-economic aspects of sustainable development, as well as mechanisation, technology transfer and resource management are addressed. The course begins with lectures and exercises covering small-scale renewable energy technologies, small-scale waste management and sanitation technologies, transport, logistics and supply chain management for resource efficiency in both rural and urban contexts, as well as soil conservation and cultivation systems. After that, a project is carried out where a case (eg a city) is studied as a system where students analyze resource flows and present technology and management solutions for improved sustainability and resource efficiency.

Course evaluation

Additional course evaluations for TN0354

Academic year 2023/2024

Sustainable technologies for low- and medium income countries (TN0354-10408)

2023-08-28 - 2024-01-14

Academic year 2022/2023

Sustainable technologies for low- and medium income countries (TN0354-10210)

2022-08-29 - 2023-01-15

Academic year 2021/2022

Sustainable technologies for low- and medium income countries (TN0354-10221)

2021-08-30 - 2022-01-16

Academic year 2020/2021

Sustainable technologies for low- and medium income countries (TN0354-10253)

2020-08-31 - 2021-01-17

Syllabus and other information

Litterature list

Introduction to sustainable development in low- and medium income countries
o Mihelcic, J. R., Fry, L. M., Myre, E. A., Phillips, L. D., & Barkdoll, B. D. (2009, September). Field guide to environmental engineering for development workers: Water, sanitation, and indoor air. American Society of Civil Engineers.
Sustainable Development and participatory research
o Keahey, J. (2021). Sustainable development and participatory action research: a systematic review. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 34(3), 291-306.
Sustainable development and appropriate technologies
o Robert, K. W., Parris, T. M., & Leiserowitz, A. A. (2005). What is Sustainable Development? Goals, Indicators, Values, and Practice. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 47(3), 8–21. Doi:
o Kuhlman, T., & Farrington, J. (2010). What is Sustainability? Sustainability, 2(11), 3436–3448. Doi:
o Patnaik, J., & Bhowmick, B. (2018). Appropriate Technology: Revisiting the Movement in Developing Countries for Sustainability. International Journal of Urban and Civil Engineering, 12(3), 308–312.
o Lohri, C. R., Rajabu, H. M., Sweeney, D. J., & Zurbrügg, C. (2016). Char fuel production in developing countries – A review of urban biowaste carbonization. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 59, 1514–1530. doi:
o Pages 8-10 from: Zabaleta, I., Bulant, N., Pfyffer, B., Rohr, M., Ivumbi, E., Mwamlima, P., Rajabu, H., & Zurbrügg, C. (2018). Pyrolysis of Biowaste in Low and Middle Income Settings. A Step-by-Step Manual. External:
Small-scale transport technologies, logistics and value chain management
Post-harvest technologies (PHT) and value chain
o Hall, D. W., & Food and Agriculture Organization. (1970). Handling and storage of food grains in tropical and subtropical areas. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: 
Chapter 3: Losses of stored food 
Chapter 4: Factors affecting food value and deterioration 
Chapter 6: Drying methods
Draught animal power as source of energy
o Gebresenbet, G., Gibbon, D., Astatke, A. (1997). Draught Animal Power: Lessons from past research and development activities in Ethiopia and indicators for future needs. IRDC Currents,13/14, 1997, Wikstroms, Uppsala.
o O'Neill, D.H., & kemp, D.C. (1989). A comparison of work outputs of draught oxen. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 43, 33-44. doi:
o Lawrence, P. R. & Pearson, R. A. (1989). Measurement of Energy Expenditure in Working Animals: Methods for Different Conditions. Draught animals in rural development, 155-165. External:
Sustainable resource management: water, wastewater and solid waste
Water resource management
o Chandra S.P. Ojha, Rao Y. Surampalli, Andres Bardossy, Tian C. Zhang, Chih-Ming Kao (2017). Sustainable Water Resources Management. American Society of Civil Engineers; ISBN: 9780784414767. 
o Hanamant M. Halli, Veeresh Hatti, Gaurendra Gupta, M Raghavendra, Mahendra Prasad Meena, Raghavendra Gouda (2022). Chapter 7 - Scientific approaches for water resources management in developing countries, Editor(s): Arun Lal Srivastav, Sughosh Madhav, Abhishek Kumar Bhardwaj, Eugenia Valsami-Jones, Current Directions in Water Scarcity Research, Elsevier, 6:129-147.
Waste management
o World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe. (‎1996)‎. Municipal solid waste management in middle- and lower-income countries : report. Copenhagen : WHO Regional Office for Europe.
o Mor, S., & Ravindra, K. (2023). Municipal solid waste landfills in lower-and middle-income countries: environmental impacts, challenges and sustainable management practices. Process Safety and Environmental Protection.
o Massoud M, Lameh G, Bardus M, Alameddine I. Determinants of Waste Management Practices and Willingness to Pay for Improving Waste Services in a Low-Middle Income Country. Environ Manage. 2021 Aug;68(2):198-209. doi: 10.1007/s00267-021-01472-z. Epub 2021 Apr 28. PMID: 33912998.
o Kaza, S., Yao, L., Bhada-Tata, P., Woerden, F. V., & Ionkova, K. (2018). What a waste 2.0: A global snapshot of solid waste management to 2050. Overview. Washington, DC: World Bank Group. doi:
Wastewater management
o Tilley, E. (2014). Compendium of sanitation systems and technologies. Eawag. Full version available:
o Sasse, L. (1998). DEWATS: Decentralised wastewater treatment in developing countries. BORDA, Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association. External:
Safe technologies for nutrient recycling
o Mcconville, J., Niwagaba, C., Nordin, A., Ahlström, M., Namboozo, V., and Kiffe, M. (2020). Guide to Sanitation Resource-Recovery Products & Technologies: a supplement to the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 1st Edition. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Energy and Technology, Uppsala, Sweden. External:
Small-scale renewable energy technologies
Wood fuel, charcoal, cook stoves
o Chesterman S, Neely C, Njenga M, & Kimaro A A. (2018). Sustainable woodfuel (charcoal and firewood) systems in coastal region in Tanzania. Stakeholder engagement in context analysis and planning using SHARED methodology. External:
o Njenga M, Sundberg C, Gitau J K, Mahmoud Y, Röing De Nowina K, Mendum R, & Karltun E. (2020). Biochar stoves for socio-ecological resilience: Lessons from small-scale farms in rural Kenya. World Agroforestry. External:
o Sundberg, C., Karltun, E., Gitau, J. K., Kätterer, T., Kimutai, G. M., Mahmoud, Y., Njenga, M., Nyberg, G., Roing de Nowina, K., Roobroeck, D., & Sieber, P. (2020). Biochar from cookstoves reduces greenhouse gas emissions from smallholder farms in Africa. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 25(6), 953–967. Doi: (7 detailed infographic pages)
o Pager 8-13 from: Vögeli, Y., Lohri, C., Gallardo, A., Diener, S., & Zurbrügg, C. (2014). Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste in Developing Countries—Practical Information and Case Studies. Doi:
o Seadi, T. A., Rutz, D., Prassl, H., Köttner, M., Finsterwalder, T., Volk, S., & Janssen, R. (2008). Biogas Handbook. University of Southern Denmark. Esbjerg. External:
o Rakotojaona, L. (2013). Domestic Biogas Development in Developing Countries. ENEA Consulting. External:
o Khan, E. U., & Martin, A. R. (2016). Review of biogas digester technology in rural Bangladesh. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 62, 247–259. Doi:
o Khan, E. U., Mainali, B., Martin, A., & Silveira, S. (2014). Techno-economic analysis of small scale biogas based polygeneration systems: Bangladesh case study. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 7, 68–78. Doi:
o Khan, E. U., & Martin, A. R. (2015). Optimization of hybrid renewable energy polygeneration system with membrane distillation for rural households in Bangladesh. Energy, 93 , 1116–1127. Doi:
Hydropower, solar, and wind energy
o Tan, D. and Seng, A. K. (2011). Handbook for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Systems. Energy Market Authority, Singapore VIII. ISBN: 978-981-08-4462-2. External:
o Elie Bertrand Kengne Signe, Oumarou Hamandjoda, Jean Nganhou (2017). Methodology of Feasibility Studies of Micro-Hydro power plants in Cameroon: Case of the Micro-hydro of KEMKEN, Energy Procedia, 119:17-28.
o Nor F. Yah, Ahmed N. Oumer, Mat S. Idris (2017). Small scale hydro-power as a source of renewable energy in Malaysia: A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 72:228-239.
o Siddharth Joshi, Meera Karamta, Bhavya Pandya (2022).Small scale wind & solar photovoltaic energy conversion system for DC microgrid applications, Materials Today: Proceedings, 62(13):7092-7097.
o Tim Olsen and Robert Preus (2015). Small Wind Site Assessment Guidelines.
Food traceability
o Bosona, T., & Gebresenbet, G. (2013). Food traceability as an integral part of logistics management in food and agricultural supply chain. Food Control, 33(1), 32–48. Doi:
o Badia-Melis, R., Mishra, P., & Ruiz-García, L. (2015). Food traceability: New trends and recent advances. A review. Food Control, 57, 393–401. Doi:
System Analysis of communities in low income countries with emphasis on food, water and energy resources
o Mcconville, J., Niwagaba, C., Nordin, A., Ahlström, M., Namboozo, V., and Kiffe, M. (2020). Guide to Sanitation Resource-Recovery Products & Technologies: a supplement to the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 1st Edition. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Energy and Technology, Uppsala, Sweden. Pages 7-11, overview of Cross-cutting issues (section X). External:
o Meadows, Donella H. (2009). Thinking in systems : a primer. London. Please read through the book excerpts with a particular focus on pages 11-58 and 187-195 (Appendix)

Course facts

The course is offered as an independent course: Yes The course is offered as a programme course: EnvEuro - European Master in Environmental Science Soil, Water and Environment - Master's Programme Agriculture and Plant/Soil Sciences Agriculture Programme - Soil/Plant Tuition fee: Tuition fee only for non-EU/EEA/Switzerland citizens: 19030 SEK Cycle: Master’s level (A1N)
Subject: Technology Environmental Science Technology Environmental science
Course code: TN0354 Application code: SLU-10293 Location: Uppsala Distance course: No Language: English Responsible department: Department of Energy and Technology Pace: 25%