Peepoo - a poor - inclusive leapfrog sanitation solution?

Last changed: 13 April 2021

This research project studies the Peepoo sanitation system, a possible leapfrog technology to reach poor people, living in settings with extreme population densities and lack of infrastructure. Peepoo is a single-use, self-sanitising, biodegradable toilet for reuse of plant nutrients. The Peepoo encloses single defecations and start sanitisation of faeces immediate upon use. This research aims to optimize microbial safety of Peepoo reuse chain, when operating at large scale in Kibera, Nairobi urban slum, Kenya.

The project focuses on Peepoo school sanitation and will surveil the prevalence of infectious diseases spread via the faecal oral route together with socio-economic factors. Microbial analyses will be used to establish prevalence/hazard identification and to model sanitisation process in the Peepoo and to screen the sanitation and reuse chain to determine exposure routes. Finally, quantitatively microbial risks assessment (QMRA) will be used to detect and manage risk in the handling chain, from collection of used Peepoos to fields and produced food.

Expected outcome is knowledge about health effects when contact with excreta is minimized and about timeliness with deworming. Relating indicator organisms, pathogens and process parameters will give information on how to optimize and validate sanitisation. Performing QMRA based to a large part on context specific data will enable to study not only the object for the risk assessment but also the methodology per se.


The study is funded by the Swedish Research Council and Grand Challenges Canada.

Collaborating partners are Peepoople Kenya (, International Aid Services and University of Nairobi, Department for Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology.


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