Glossary and references

Last changed: 09 April 2021


Attention restoration theory (ART): is a theory that asserts that people have better cognitive performance after being exposed to natural environments. Nature can lead to the restoration of a limited cognitive resource, directed attention. ART was developed by Rachel and Stephen Kaplan and later reinforced by empirical evidence.

Compatibility: is a component of ART that refers to the fit between what a person wants to do or is inclined to and the kinds of activities supported, which the individual chooses and is a necessary feature of a restorative setting.

Environmental psychology: an interdisciplinary field that focuses on the transactions and interrelationships between individuals and groups with their surroundings.

Individual differences: characteristics, preferences, and understandings that distinguish one individual or group from others. In this podcast, these characteristics have included different needs and preferences in natural environments.

Resilient societies: the ability of systems and individuals of a society to cope, adapt and recover from challenges of disruption and adversity.

Individual differences: characteristics, preferences, and understandings that distinguish one individual or group from others. In this podcast, these characteristics have included different needs and preferences in natural environments.

Restoration: the processes of recovering and reestablishing cognitive and physiological capabilities. Restoration is necessary when the capabilities of individuals are diminished due to resources used in efforts to meet demands.

Restorative environments: environments with characteristics that can promote and permit restoration.

Soft fascination: component of ART involves one’s attention being held without any effort. Soft fascination is when your attention is held by a less stimulating activity that provides opportunity for reflection and sense-making, which natural environments can support.



Research project:

Ahmadpoor, N., & Shahab, S. (2021). Realising the value of greenspace: a planners' perspective on the COVID-19 pandemic. Town Planning Review, 92(1), 49-56.

Bell-Williamsa, R., Irvineb, K. N., Reevesc, A., & Warberd, S. (2021). Digging deeper: Gardening as a way to develop non-human relationships through connection with Nature. European Journal of Ecopsychology, 7, 1-18.

Buckley, R., & Westaway, D. (2020). Mental health rescue effects of women's outdoor tourism: A role in COVID-19 recovery. Annals of tourism research, 85, 103041.

Day, B. H. (2020). The value of greenspace under pandemic lockdown. Environmental and Resource Economics, 76(4), 1161-1185.

Douglas, M., Katikireddi, S. V., Taulbut, M., McKee, M., & McCartney, G. (2020). Mitigating the wider health effects of covid-19 pandemic response. Bmj, 369.

Douglas, I., Champion, M., Clancy, J., Haley, D., de Souza, M. L., Morrison, K., ... & Webb, T. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic: local to global implications as perceived by urban ecologists. Socio-Ecological Practice Research, 2(3), 217-228.

Dzhambov, A. M., Lercher, P., Browning, M. H., Stoyanov, D., Petrova, N., Novakov, S., & Dimitrova, D. D. (2020). Does greenery experienced indoors and outdoors provide an escape and support mental health during the COVID-19 quarantine?. Environmental Research, 110420.

Francisco, R., Pedro, M., Delvecchio, E., Espada, J. P., Morales, A., Mazzeschi, C., & Orgilés, M. (2020). Psychological symptoms and behavioral changes in children and adolescents during the early phase of COVID-19 quarantine in three European countries. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11, 1329.

Gray, S., & Kellas, A. (2020). Covid-19 has highlighted the inadequate, and unequal, access to high quality green spaces. The BMJ Opinion.

Geng, D. C., Innes, J., Wu, W., & Wang, G. (2020). Impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on urban park visitation: a global analysis. Journal of forestry research, 1-15.

Guzman, V., Garrido-Cumbrera, M., Braçe, O., Hewlett, D., & Foley, R. (2021). Health and Wellbeing under Covid-19: The GreenCovid Survey. Irish Geography, 53(2), 157-162.

Haas, B. W., Hoeft, F., & Omura, K. (2021). The role of culture on the link between worldviews on nature and psychological health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Personality and individual differences, 170, 110336.

Haasova, S., Czellar, S., Rahmani, L., & Morgan, N. (2020). Connectedness With Nature and Individual Responses to a Pandemic: An Exploratory Study. Frontiers in psychology, 11.

Hartig, T., Mang, M., & Evans, G. W. (1991). Restorative effects of natural environment experiences. Environment and Behavior, 23(1), 3-26.

Hubbard, G., den Daas, C., Dixon, D., Johnston, M., Murchie, P., & Thompson, C. W. (2021). Is rurality, area deprivation, access to outside space and green space associated with mental health during the Covid-19 pandemic? A cross sectional study from the Covid-19 Health and Adherence Research in Scotland (CHARIS) project.

Heo, S., Lim, C. C., & Bell, M. L. (2020). Relationships between Local Green Space and Human Mobility Patterns during COVID-19 for Maryland and California, USA. Sustainability, 12(22), 9401.

Johnson, T. F., Hordley, L. A., Greenwell, M. P., & Evans, L. C. (2020). Effect of park use and landscape structure on COVID-19 transmission rates. medRxiv.

Kaplan, R., & Kaplan, S. (1989). The experience of nature: A psychological perspective: CUP Archive.

Kleinschroth, F., & Kowarik, I. (2020). COVID‐19 crisis demonstrates the urgent need for urban greenspaces. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 18(6), 318.

Liu, L. (2020). Emerging study on the transmission of the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) from urban perspective: Evidence from China. Cities, 103, 102759.

Lu, Y., Zhao, J., Wu, X., & Lo, S. M. (2020). Escaping to nature in pandemic: a natural experiment of COVID-19 in Asian cities.

McCunn, L. J. (2020). The importance of nature to city living during the COVID-19 pandemic: Considerations and goals from environmental psychology. Cities & Health, 1-4.

McGinlay, J., Gkoumas, V., Holtvoeth, J., Fuertes, R. F. A., Bazhenova, E., Benzoni, A., ... & Jones, N. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on the management of european protected areas and policy implications. Forests, 11(11), 1214.

Morse, J. W., Gladkikh, T. M., Hackenburg, D. M., & Gould, R. K. (2020). COVID-19 and human-nature relationships: Vermonters’ activities in nature and associated nonmaterial values during the pandemic. PloS one, 15(12), e0243697.

Nhamo, G., Dube, K., & Chikodzi, D. (2020). Global Tourism Value Chains, Sustainable Development Goals and COVID-19. In Counting the Cost of COVID-19 on the Global Tourism Industry (pp. 27-51). Springer, Cham.

Ohly, H., White, M. P., Wheeler, B. W., Bethel, A., Ukoumunne, O. C., Nikolaou, V., & Garside, R. (2016). Attention Restoration Theory: A systematic review of the attention restoration potential of exposure to natural environments. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 19(7), 305-343.

Shoari, N., Ezzati, M., Baumgartner, J., Malacarne, D., & Fecht, D. (2020). Accessibility and allocation of public parks and gardens in England and Wales: A COVID-19 social distancing perspective. PloS one, 15(10), e0241102.

Slater, S. J., Christiana, R. W., & Gustat, J. (2020). Peer Reviewed: Recommendations for keeping parks and green space accessible for mental and physical health during COVID-19 and other pandemics. Preventing chronic disease, 17.

Soga, M., Evans, M. J., Tsuchiya, K., & Fukano, Y. (2020). A room with a green view: the importance of nearby nature for mental health during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Ecological Applications, e2248.

University of Surrey, (2021). Profile - Professor Birgitta Gatersleben. Accessed on 2021-04-07.

Swami, V., Barron, D., Weis, L., & Furnham, A. (2016). Bodies in nature: Associations between exposure to nature, connectedness to nature, and body image in US adults. Body Image, 18, 153-161.

Tomasso, L. P., Yin, J., Cedeño Laurent, J. G., Chen, J. T., Catalano, P. J., & Spengler, J. D. (2021). The Relationship between Nature Deprivation and Individual Wellbeing across Urban Gradients under COVID-19. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(4), 1511.

Ugolini, F., Massetti, L., Calaza-Martínez, P., Cariñanos, P., Dobbs, C., Ostoić, S. K., ... & Sanesi, G. (2020). Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the use and perceptions of urban green space: An international exploratory study. Urban forestry & urban greening, 56, 126888.

You, H., Wu, X., & Guo, X. (2020). Distribution of COVID-19 morbidity rate in association with social and economic factors in Wuhan, China: implications for urban development. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(10), 3417.

van den Bosch, M., & Bird, W. (2018). Oxford Textbook of Nature and Public Health: Oxford University Press.

Venter, Z. S., Barton, D. N., Gundersen, V., Figari, H., & Nowell, M. (2020). Urban nature in a time of crisis: recreational use of green space increases during the COVID-19 outbreak in Oslo, Norway. Environmental Research Letters, 15(10), 104075.

Zhu, J., & Xu, C. (2021). Sina microblog sentiment in Beijing city parks as a measure of demand for urban green space during the COVID-19. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 58, 126913.