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Cytokine responses to larval stages of equine strongyles and modulatory effects of the adjuvant G3

Last changed: 08 July 2021
Strongylus vulgaris

The aims of the current study were to generate different larval stages of Strongylus vulgaris and to study cytokine responses in cultures of eqPBMC exposed to defined larval stages of S. vulgaris and cyathostomins with the aim to understand the early immune reaction to these parasites.

EqPBMC were exposed to S. vulgaris larvae (L3, exsheated L3 and L4) and cyathostomin L3 and analysed for cytokine gene expression. Procedures for decontamination, culturing and attenuation of larvae were established. Transcription of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 was induced by both S. vulgaris and cyathostomin L3. Moulting of S. vulgaris from L3 to L4 stage was accompanied by a shift to high expression of IL-5 and IL-9 (exsheated L3 and L4) and IFN-γ (L4 only). In parallel, the adjuvant G3 modified the cytokine profile induced by both parasites by reducing the expression of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 while concomitantly enhancing the expression of IFN-γ.

The L4 stage of S. vulgaris generated a cytokine profile different from that induced by the earlier L3 stage of S. vulgaris and cyathostomins. This diversity depending on the life cycle stage will have implications for the choice of antigen and adjuvant in future vaccine design.

Link to publication


Hellman, S., Tydén, E., Hjertner, B., Nilsfors,, F., Hu, K., Morein., Fossum, C. Cytokine responses to various larval stages of equine strongyles and modulatory effects of the adjuvant G3 in vitro. Parasite Immunology 2020;00:e12794.