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Extreme phenotype and and genetic disease raise concerns

Last changed: 24 January 2019

To improve the health and welfare of pedigree dogs, national kennel clubs (KCs) are key players in the governance and regulation of dog breeding.

In a survey conducted to investigate differences between KCs in breeding policies and management of pedigree dogs, a questionnaire was completed by 15 KCs from 11 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom) and four non-European countries (Australia, Mexico, Uruguay and the USA).

The most important concerns reported by KCs were exaggerated morphological features and inherited disorders. A wide variety of information, tools and strategies was used to address these issues, with implementation differing across countries and breeds. KCs reported progress in the collection and provision of information related to canine health and welfare.

Implementation of advanced breeding tools, such as genetic evaluation and online advisory mating tools, and balanced breeding strategies, endorsed by clubs and breeders, remain challenging and require further development.

Link to the publication


Wang, S., D. Laloë, F. M. Missant, S. Malm, T. Lewis, E. Verrier, E. Strandberg, B. N. Bonnett, and G. Leroy. 2018. Breeding policies and management of pedigree dogs in 15 national kennel clubs. The Veterinary Journal 234:130-135.