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"For some goals, we took a few steps forward, but for others it rather went in the wrong direction."

Published: 22 December 2022
A person at a negotiation table. Photo.

The CBM director Torbjörn Ebenhard wrote directly from the UN Conference on biological diversity, COP-15, in Montreal.

Torbjörn Ebenhard, director of SLU's Center for Biological Diversity, was participating in the negotiations in Montreal. He belonged to the Swedish negotiating delegation and was on loan to the EU's presidency country, the Czech Republic, as a negotiator for the EU. He was also appointed as lead author and negotiator for goal A, targets 1-8 in the new framework for biodiversity.

Read Torbjörn's own reflections about the negotiations and everything around them in the COP15 blog (Swedish).



The United Nations Biodiversity Conference, COP15, was held in Montreal December 2022. All parties agreed on a new global framework, generally called a "Paris agreement for global biodiversity". The framework will last until 2030 and consists of four main goals and 23 action goals. 

The framework’s four overarching global goals:


  • The integrity, connectivity and resilience of all ecosystems are maintained,enhanced, or restored, substantially increasing the area of natural ecosystems by 2050;
  • Human induced extinction of known threatened species is halted, and, by2050, extinction rate and risk of all species are reduced tenfold, and the abundance of native wild species is increased to healthy and resilient levels;
  • The genetic diversity within populations of wild and domesticated species,is maintained, safeguarding their adaptive potential.


  • Biodiversity is sustainably used and managed and nature’s contributions to people, including ecosystem functions and services, are valued, maintained and enhanced, with those currently in decline being restored, supporting the achievement of sustainable development, for the benefit of present and future generations by 2050.


  • The monetary and non-monetary benefits from the utilization of genetic resources, and digital sequence information on genetic resources, and of traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources, as applicable, are shared fairly and equitably, including, as appropriate with indigenous peoples and local communities, and substantially increased by 2050, while ensuring traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources is appropriately protected, thereby contributing to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, in accordance with internationally agreed access and benefit-sharing instruments.


  • Adequate means of implementation, including financial resources, capacity-building, technical and scientific cooperation, and access to and transfer of technology to fully implement the Kunming-Montreal global biodiversity framework are secured and equitably accessible to all Parties, especially developing countries, in particular the least developed countries and small island developing States, as well as countries with economies in transition,progressively closing the biodiversity finance gap of $700 billion per year,and aligning financial flows with the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework and the 2050 Vision for Biodiversity.

Source: COP15