More reading

Last changed: 10 May 2023

For those who want to read more about how soil moisture maps can be used in forestry and the research that underlie the maps, here are links to a number of articles.







The method development of the map is described in the article: 

Ågren, A. M., J. Larson, S. S. Paul, H. Laudon, and W. Lidberg (2021) Use of multiple LIDAR-derived digital terrain indices and machine learning for high-resolution national-scale soil moisture mapping of the Swedish forest landscape. Geoderma 404, 115280,

A guide to using wet area maps in forestry

The first 4 studies that are the basis for the development of the soil moisture maps:

  • W Lidberg, M Nilsson, A Ågren (2019) Using machine learning to generate high-resolution wet area maps for planning forest management: A study in a boreal forest landscape, Ambio 49 (2), 475-486.


The importance of scale for mapping soil moisture: 


In addition to this, we can show that the maps actually capture small groundwater discharge areas:


And that these groundwater discharge areas are important for species diversity in the riparian zones along streams:


It is therefore wise to consider local groundwater discharge areas when designing protection zones around watercourses:


Taking into account the local groundwater discharge areas is a cost-effective solution to optimize the benefit to the environment and biodiversity as valuable forest rarely stands on these lands: