Recreation Types and their Respective Spaces in Informal Settlements: The case of Dar es Salaam

Senast ändrad: 03 april 2023

Research area and context

My research area mainly focus on how possible can recreation take place in informal settlements which are characterised by densification and congestion of buildings situated in irregular pattern where ‘recreational demarcated spaces’ are not easily seen, Hence the attainment of pleasure, health, happiness and well-being is puzzling. The research is based in the city of Dar es salaam where eight percent of its inhabitants dwell in informal settlements.

 Kartor i olika skalor som visar Dar es Salaams placering. Illustration.

Daar es Salaam,Tanzania.

Concepts and theories underpinnings

Habitus, Sense of place, Sensory experiences, Psychological attributes.


Interviews, observation, participatory observation and micro ethnography supplemented by questionnaires.

Key findings

Some of the findings reveals various forms of recreation which are done ‘intentionally’ and ‘unintentionally’ by individuals.

Recreation takes place in ‘undesignated spaces’ as well as ‘transformed designated space’.

Spaces are appropriated through processes namely adaptation, transformation, temporalisation and negotiation.


The study intend to contribute new perspectives of shaping city spaces in cities, in order to enhance generation of space for peoples’ health, happiness and well-being.

Also contribution to SDG 11 Target 11.7 ‘By 2030’ provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible green and public spaces in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities.


Edson Sanga. Foto.   

Edson Sanga, PhD Candidate at the Ardhi University (Dar es Salaam)-Tanzania / Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala

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